Although people may be familiar with the more common forms of anxiety, such as social phobias or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), there are other types of anxiety which are less well-known. Castration anxiety, for example, is not cited as a common anxiety condition or disorder, but it can be disabling for those who suffer from it.
Anxieties of castration, in its literal sense, was one of Freud's earliest psychoanalytic theories. He suggested that, between the ages of three and five, a child may experience anxiety of castration due to the fear of damage to their genitals. This fear of loss or damage arises due to oedipal feelings towards the mother, resulting in fear of punishment from the father.
While castration anxiety, in this context, may seem far-fetched, Freud maintained that these feelings could occur subconsciously. While castration anxiety remains present, the child is unable to verbalize or identify the cause of their feelings. Furthermore, castration anxiety may manifest itself in different ways and it may not appear to have a link to the original cause of anxiety.
It is suggested, for example, that males with specific phobias may have a higher rate of castration anxiety than those without, despite the phobia having no tangible link to fear of castration.
As well as the literal psychosexual manifestation of castration anxiety, the condition can occur in other ways. Often, a metaphorical interpretation of castration anxiety is given as the explanation for other anxiety conditions or disorders.
Rather than fearing physical castration, patients may develop anxiety associated with the fear of being emasculated. Patients may fear feeling insignificant or being dominated, while others may avoid feelings of inferiority.
Although castration anxiety, in a metaphorical sense, has been linked to the fear or emasculation, many psychotherapists believe this is synonymous with a fear of death. If patients fear losing control or dying, they may feel a sense of desperation or despair and this can manifest itself as anxiety by thoughts of castration.
With many of these fears occurring subconsciously, men who present with issues regarding female dominance may not be consciously aware of their buried fears. While they may display symptoms of castration anxiety, they may not know why or what the root cause of the condition is.
According to Freud, castration anxiety could arise as a result of normal psychosexual development and was not, therefore, uncommon. However, if castration anxiety continues, males may display anxiety in other areas of their lives. As a result, they may struggle to forge intimate, interpersonal or social relationships.
While a patient may feel dominated in certain situations, their fear may be exacerbating these feelings and they may not, in actual fact, be at risk of being dominated at all. Despite this, their castration anxiety results in very real changes in their behavior.
As with most forms of anxiety, treatment is possible and it can be effective. Often, psychotherapy is used in order to allow patients to analyze and discuss the cause of their anxiety. While this may take multiple sessions to achieve, once the patient has identified the cause of their anxiety, they can take steps to minimize it or overcome it.
It is generally suffered by males, but Freud did argue that females experience a differing form of the condition. Presuming that penis envy was prevalent in all females, Freud maintained that this led to feelings of metaphorical castrations and subsequent envy of male role models, such as the father.
Although Freud's psychosexual development theory was once hailed as his most significant scientific achievement, it has also been heavily criticized. While castration anxiety may still present in males, it is more likely to do so in a metaphorical sense and it may manifest itself in other forms of anxiety or phobias.
Feelings of emasculation and insignificance can result in anxiety and this may require treatment. With societal changes taking place throughout the twentieth century, it was not uncommon for men to feel displaced or experience a loss of perceived power. As a result, castration anxiety remains a very real problem for many patients.
While women can certainly experience sexual anxiety or issues with psychosexual development, Freud's female version of castration anxiety, penis envy, has been heavily criticized and largely debunked.
With effective treatment, however, emasculation or castration anxiety can be reduced. Patients may learn to recognize their behavioral responses to such anxiety and modify them accordingly.
By analyzing the cause of their anxiety and overcoming any past trauma, patients can rid themselves of such anxiety and prevent it from having a negative effect on any area of their lives.