Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide (Oral)

Captopril and hydrochlorothiazide are combined into a tablet taken orally to help people with high blood pressure treat and control their condition.

Overview

The drugs captopril and hydrochlorothiazide are combined together to create a drug that is designed to control and treat high blood pressure. It is known by the brand name Capozide. Capozide blocks enzymes that are necessary to create substances in the body causing constriction of the blood vessels. This drug helps the blood vessels to relax, therefore allow blood to flow more freely, which, in turn, keeps blood pressure in a normal range. It keeps the amount of water and salt down in the body by increasing urine flow from the kidneys. The heart experiences an increase in blood and oxygen and optimizes normal circulation and body function.

This medication comes in a tablet form and is taken orally. It is important to carefully monitor your progress with this treatment. If have any pre-existing medical conditions, it is important to discuss them with your doctor to prevent complications. Also tell your doctor about all medications you are currently taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. If you experience side effects such as chills or fever, you may have developed an infection that requires emergency medical treatment.

Some pre-existing medical conditions can be exacerbated substantially when taking this drug. It is important to monitor your condition closely if you do have a medical condition, especially if it is a renal or liver impairment. Do not consume alcohol with this medication without first discussing it with your doctor. You should also limit the amount of potassium-rich foods you consume because they carry an interaction risk. Do not take more of this medication than is prescribed by your doctor. If you miss your scheduled dose, take the medication as soon as you remember unless it is time for your next dose. Do not take more than one dose at a time.

If you have diabetes you may be at a higher risk of developing complications as a result of taking this medication. Do not stop taking this drug suddenly unless instructed by your doctor. You may need to have your dose adjusted once you reach the therapeutic level. This is usually done in six-week increments.

Condition treated

  • High blood pressure

Type of medicine

  • Diuretic

Side effects

  • Tarry, black stool

This is a common side effect of the medication. Monitor this side effect closely and report any changes, or if it persists for an extended period of time.

Chest pains can be a side effect of this medication, but they can also be the sign of a life-threatening situation. When experiencing chest pain, you should call 911 or seek immediate medical attention.

  • Cough

If you develop a cough, it could be a sign of an infection or some other serious medical condition that requires medical attention.

  • Chills

Chills may indicate that you either have an infection, or you are not tolerating the medication well. Discuss your options for a dose change or changing to a different medication to prevent this side effect.

  • Urination pain

If you experience pain or discomfort while urinating, you may have an issue with renal function or you may have developed another serious medical condition that may require medical treatment.

  • Fever

A fever can be a sign of a developing medical condition which requires treatment by your healthcare provider.

You may be developing an infection or have an intolerance to this medication if you develop a sore throat. Monitor this side effect closely, especially if it accompanies other side effects.

  • White spots on mouth or lips

Report white spots on your lips or mouth. It could be a sign of a developing infection or allergic reaction.

  • Sore or ulcers in or around the mouth

You may notice that you develop sores or ulcers in, or around the mouth when taking Capozide.

  • Swollen glands

Some may experience swollen glands when taking Capozide. If you notice this side effect for several days, you may be developing an infection that requires medical treatment.

  • Bleeding or bruising

If you notice any unusual bleeding or bruising, you should tell your healthcare provider right away.

  • Weakness or tiredness

Some people may feel tired or unusually weak, especially during the adjustment phase. This may also be a sign of electrolyte depletion. You should discuss your options for other treatments or a dose adjustment.

  • Rash

If you develop a rash, you may be allergic to this medication or require a dose adjustment.

  • Joint pain

Some individuals notice that they experience joint pain when they initially begin taking this drug.

  • Muscle stiffness and pain

Report any muscle stiffness or pain when you begin taking this medication.

  • Itching skin

You may develop dry itchy skin when using this medication. Make sure to stay hydrated adequately. If you think you are having an adverse reaction, you may need to change medications.

Uncommon side effects

  • Blurry vision

If you begin to experience blurry vision, you should monitor the situation and report any sudden changes.

  • Cloudy urine

Monitor your urine output and if you notice cloudiness, you should inform your healthcare provider.

You may notice that you experience dizziness or faintness when suddenly standing after sitting or laying down.

  • Confusion

Confusion is a serious side effect and requires immediate attention.

  • Irregular heartbeat

In some cases, patients who take Capozide have been known to have an irregular heartbeat.

  • Sweating

You may notice unusual sweating when taking this medication.

  • Change or loss of taste

While unusual, there is a possibility that you may notice a change in the way things taste, and in some cases, may lose your ability to taste. Inform your health care professional and discuss your options for an alternative treatment.

Rare side effects

  • Bloody urine

Any blood in the urine can be a sign of a serious medical condition and should be reported.

  • Pain in the jaw, back, or arm

You may be experiencing a life-threatening condition if you have pain in your jaw, arm, or back. Seek medical attention.

  • Discomfort in chest

You may be experiencing a life-threatening medical emergency if you have discomfort in your chest.

  • Tight or heavy chest

A tight or heavy chest can be a sign of a developing serious medical condition. Seek medical treatment right away.

  • Decreased blood pressure

This medication is known to cause a decrease in blood pressure which should be monitored carefully.

  • Decreased urination

You may experience a decrease in urination as a side effect of this medication.

  • Dilated neck veins

You may notice that this drug causes you to experience dilution of the neck veins. Monitor this condition closely.

This medication may leave you thirsty, especially during the first few weeks of therapy.

  • Increased urine output

You may experience more frequent urination as a result of the diuretic effect of this medication.

  • Irregular breathing

If you experience irregular breathing you should report your symptoms to your healthcare provider right away.

  • Hives on the feet, legs, sex organs, hands, throat, face, eyelids, lips, and tongue

The appearance of a rash that looks like hives can be a sign of a serious allergic reaction that requires treatment.

  • Decreased appetite

Your appetite in some cases may decrease during the initial adjustment phase. If the condition persists you may want to discuss your options for a medication change or an adjustment of the dose you currently take.

  • Pain in the side or lower back

If you develop pain in your lower back or side it could be the result of a renal impairment, or you may not tolerate this medication well.

  • Nausea

You may be nauseated when initially starting therapy with this medication.

  • Weezing

If you experience wheezing it may be a result of a developing condition that requires medical attention.

  • Weight gain

Rarely some patients experience unexpected weight gain. Steps should be taken to assess the cause of this condition because it may be a sign of another medical condition developing.

  • Vomiting

You may experience nausea with vomiting if you do not tolerate this medication well. You may require a dose adjustment or a change of medication.

  • Trouble breathing

If you experience trouble breathing, you may be experiencing an allergic reaction or another serious medical condition. Seek medical attention immediately.

  • Pain and tingling in fingers and toes exposed to cold

This is a rare side effect of taking Capozide and should be monitored for any unusual or extreme changes.

Dosage

The average adult dose of Capozide is 25 mg of captopril and 15 mg of hydrochlorothiazide combined together in tablet form, once per day taken approximately one hour before a meal. The maximum dose of Capozide recommended is 150 mg of captopril and 50 mg of hydrochlorothiazide daily.

It is important to note that the full effects of this medication may not be apparent until 6 to 8 weeks after beginning this medication. If adjustments are necessary, they should be carried out at 6-week intervals unless your healthcare provider feels otherwise, or an emergency situation arises.

You may use this medication with an adjustment for mild to moderate renal dysfunction. The renal dose adjustment is CrCl 30 to less than 90 mL/min. The dose should be adjusted to require the minimum therapeutic dose once the desired results have been achieved. This medication is not recommended for patients who have a severe renal impairment.

Interactions

There are a total of 933 drugs known to interact with captopril and hydrochlorothiazide also known as Capozide. Of the 933 drugs, 108 of those are known to have a major interaction risk, 733 which carry a moderate interaction risk, and 114 minor drug interactions. The most common drugs known to carry the potential for an interaction risk include Lasix, Advair Diskus, low strength aspirin, Carbatrol, Celexa, Prozac, Epitol, Victoza, Imdur, Invokana, Lantus, and vitamin D3.

Food/alcohol interactions:

  • Alcohol

There is a moderate risk of interaction with alcohol. Do not take this medication with alcohol without first consulting with your doctor. Using this medication while ingesting alcohol may result in dizziness, headaches, and fainting.

  • Food

There is a moderate risk of interaction when combining a diet high in potassium with captopril. This combination may promote hyperkalemia.

  • Hyperlipidemia

Thiazides are known to aggravate preexisting hyperlipidemia. Before beginning your course of treatment with this medication, you should consult your doctor about beginning a lipid-reducing regimen.

Disease interactions

  • Renal function

This medication may further exacerbate impaired renal function. You may be required to take an adjusted dose to help prevent issues.

You should discuss taking this medication if you suffer angioedema. In some instance, you may not tolerate this medication well.

If you have liver disease, you may not be able to tolerate taking this medication. If you do take this medication, you may require an altered dose.

  • Bone marrow suppression

You may not be able to take this medication because it poses an interaction risk if you have bone marrow suppression.

  • CHF

Great caution should be used when taking this drug if you have congestive heart failure. Your doctor will want to monitor your condition closely so they can detect any issues caused by taking Capozide.

This medication may aggravate your asthma condition.

  • Hyperkalemia

Individuals who take this medication are at risk for developing hyperkalemia especially if they have a renal condition or diabetes.

  • ┬áDiabetes

Using this medication may pose a potential interaction risk for individuals who have diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes controlled with insulin injections. Patients who have diabetes may also develop hyperkalemia.

  • Hypotension

Patients who have congestive heart failure are especially susceptible to interactions with this medication. This medication has been known to cause systematic hypotension.

  • Hyperlipidemia

Close monitoring of hyperlipidemia is recommended and a lipid-lowering regimen should be followed to minimize this disease risk.

  • Hyperparathyroidism

Urinary calcium levels are reduced in patients who take this medication for an extended period of time and should be monitored in individuals who have a history of hyperparathyroidism.

  • Electrolyte reduction

This medication can compound this effect.

  • Hyperuricemia

There is a slight risk for gout in some patients who take this medication. Close medical supervision is recommended.

  • Lupus erythematosus

This medication has been known to exacerbate Lupus erythematosus. Close supervision is highly encouraged.

  • Thyroid function test

This drug can lower serum BPI, which can create an inaccurate result for a thyroid test.

Warnings

If you have any medical conditions or are taking any medication including herbal supplements and vitamins, you should inform your doctor prior to beginning treatment with this medication. There are some risks for interaction including food and alcohol interaction. Do not take more of this medication than directed because it significantly increases the risks of side effects. If you begin any new medications you should inform your doctor. If you develop an infection or have a medical event, you may need to temporarily discontinue this medication or have you dose altered. If you miss a dose you should take the medication as soon as you remember. If it is time for your next dose only take a single dose. Never take two doses of this medication.

Do not leave this medication where children or pets can come in contact with it. Do not store this medication where it will be exposed to heat or light. If you have serious side effects from Capozide, you should tell your doctor right away or seek emergency medical treatment. If you have a medical condition requiring a dose adjustment, you should monitor your progress closely and report any changes, especially sudden changes to your doctor. Don't miss your regular schedule appointments and comply with all requested medical testing and labs.

Storage

Do not store this medication in direct sunlight or in areas where it will be exposed to heat. Keep your medication in its original prescription bottle if you plan to travel. Medications should be kept in a locking container that is stored out of the reach of children and pets. Do not expose your medication to excessive moisture and keep away from areas such as the bathroom where there may be humid conditions. If you dispose of this medication, you should utilize your community take-back program. If you do not have a community take-back program, you should read the FDA's pamphlet regarding the proper way to dispose of prescription medications. Do not take expired medication and do not store other medication in the same container with Capozide.

Summary

Captopril and hydrochlorothiazide are combined in a tablet to help people who suffer from high blood pressure control and treat their conditions. This medication is known by the brand name Capozide and is widely used by people to prevent complications from high blood pressure. This drug works to relax blood vessels and help improve circulation to the heart and throughout the body. Before taking this medication, you should discuss your complete medical history and any supplements and prescriptions you are currently taking. This medication has been known to have a variety of side effects, and may not be tolerated well by some individuals.

If you have renal impairment or a liver condition you may need an adjusted dose. Do not take more of this medication than directed and do not stop taking this medication suddenly unless under the supervision of your doctor. If you have an impairment you can begin dose adjustments after the therapeutic level has been attained. Dose adjustments are recommended to occur in six-week intervals.

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Last Reviewed:
December 25, 2017
Last Updated:
April 05, 2018
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