Ceftolozane and Tazobactam (Intravenous)

Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is an antibiotic that is injected into the veins to eradicate complicated intra-abdominal or urinary tract infections in adult patients.

Overview

Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is a prescription antibiotic used to treat a host of bacterial infections in screened hospitalized patients. It is a preferred antibiotic of choice for complex internal abdominal bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotic therapies. Based on medical research, bacterial resistance affects roughly two million people each year.

These infections, in many cases, are hard to ignore and cannot simply be treated with over-the-counter medicines or herbal supplements. For the most part, intra-abdominal infections that are complex cause patients a great deal of distress and make it hard to function in everyday life.

Some examples include:

  • style="font-weight: 400;">Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
  • 400;">Pneumonia
  • Central Venous Catheter Infections
  • Bacterial Meningitis
  • Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

Fortunately, medical interventions such as Ceftolozane and Tazobactam are now available for prescreened adult patients.

Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is particularly used to cure conditions that are caused by the following strains of bacteria:

  • Bacteroides Fragilis
  • Enterobacter Cloacae
  • Escherichia Coli
  • Klebsiella Oxytoca
  • Klebsiella Pneumoniae
  • Klebsiella Pneumoniae
  • Proteus Mirabilis
  • Proteus Mirabilis
  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
  • Streptococcus Anginosus
  • Streptococcus Constellatus
  • Streptococcus Salivarius

This is not an all-inclusive list. The FDA reports that a number of gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic bacterial strains have demonstrated the desired response to Ceftolozane and Tazobactam.

A trained medical professional can determine what strain of bacteria is present by completing a number of culture tests.

As is the case with all antibiotics, Ceftolozane and Tazobactam only proves effective for wiping out bacterial strains of infections. It does not eliminate viruses like the cold and flu, for example.

Other Tidbits

Route: Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is administered intravenously into the veins by a trained and qualified medical worker.

Brand Name: In the United States, this drug is available under the brand name Zerbaxa.

Combo Treatment: Ceftolozane and Tazobactam may be prescribed independently for treating the above conditions. In some cases, however, patients may be given Ceftolozane/Tazobactam in conjunction with the Metronidazole for best results. The goal is to completely wipe out the underlying bacterial strain causing the patient significant discomfort and pain.

Condition(s) Treated?

  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (cIAIs)

Type Of Medicine?

  • Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors
  • Cephalosporin-Class Antibacterial Drug

Side Effects

Ceftolozane and Tazobactam could potentially cause adverse side effects to occur. The most commonly reported adverse reactions by patients who have undergone this treatment include:

  • Abnormal Heart Rate
  • Appetite Changes
  • Burping
  • Dry Mouth
  • Extreme Thirst
  • Fainting
  • Feeling Confused
  • Feeling Dizzy
  • Feeling Nauseous
  • Feeling Nervous
  • 400;">Headache
  • Increased Perspiration
  • 400;">Insomnia
  • Pain in the Muscles or Joints
  • Parched Lips
  • Rashes
  • Seizures
  • Spikes in Temperature
  • Tingling or Numb Sensations
  • Trouble Breathing
  • Upset Stomach, Heartburn, or Indigestion
  • Urine Volume Reduction
  • Vision Changes

Rare Side Effects of Ceftolozane and Tazobactam

Some of the rare side effects of this treatment are:

  • Blood in the Urine
  • Chest Tightness
  • 400;">Diarrhea
  • Difficulty Swallowing
  • Feeling Bloated
  • Feeling Constipated
  • Feeling Famished
  • Severe Muscle Pain or Cramps
  • Skin Irritation
  • Sudden Swelling
  • Sweet Breath
  • Too Little or Too Much Urine
  • Weight Changes

Dosage

Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is intended for adult patients only. Each patient dose will differ according to:

  • Medication Tolerance
  • The Patient's Age
  • The Patient's Weight
  • The Underlying Infection
  • Other Factors

The Average Dose

In most cases, however, the following doses are prescribed:

  • Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: 1.5 gram via IV injection | 4X per Day| 4 Days to 2 Weeks
  • Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 1.5 gram via IV injection | 4X per Day| One Week

As mentioned earlier, this medicine may be prescribed alone or in combination with Metronidazole.

Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is exclusively administered intravenously into patient's veins or via an IV. A trained medical provider controls the treatment in a hospital setting and generally follows protocols, such as:

  • Wearing Gloves: To protect both patients' and workers' health during needle injections or IV insertions, gloves are worn at all times and disposed of following use.
  • Discarding Needles: All needles are for one-time use only. Used needles must be furthermore placed in a biohazard container in order to prevent the risk of transmitting diseases, if applicable.
  • Reconstituting the Solution: Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is supplied in single-dose vials that must be reconstituted or mixed before use. Medical workers follow the directives on exactly as prescribed. Typically, the powdered 1 gram vial is reconstituted with 10 ml of sterile water or another approved formulation.

It is important for medical workers to note, however, that after dissolving the powder with the recommended amount of sterile water or solution, another step must be taken to provide the patient with the prescribed dose. A syringe is used to extract the precise dose for infusion into the IV bag.

Interactions

Some medicines are not indicated for concomitant use with Ceftolozane and Tazobactam, which basically means these should not be taken together.

In some cases, when both drugs are required to improve a patient's health, the dose of one or both drugs may be modified. In all prescription cases, healthcare providers generally make a calculated decision on whether the drug is right for the patient.

Here is the most noteworthy drug interaction with Ceftolozane and Tazobactam:

Vaccines - Ceftolozane and Tazobactam could affect the efficacy of certain vaccines, including the live cholera vaccine.

Warnings

Follow the below precautions before commencing treatment with Ceftolozane and Tazobactam:

Disclose Medical History

To reduce the risk of negative side effects, patients should inform their medical provider of any past or current underlying conditions. Make a full list of all medications being taken, including over the counter medicines, vitamins, and supplements.

It is also important to disclose any past history of allergic reactions to penicillin since Ceftolozane and Tazobactam could potentially cause a severe allergy to occur. This requires immediate medical intervention.

Highlight on Allergies

To help recognize the signs of a serious allergy, note the following telltale signs:

  • 400;">Hives
  • Severe Itchiness
  • Wheezing
  • Difficulty Breathing Or Swallowing

As Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is administered exclusively in a hospital setting, nurses on duty are trained to identify the warning signs of anaphylaxis shock. These facilities are fully equipped with counteractive medicines and tools to help workers on duty react speedily to the signs of an allergic reaction.

Still, patients should aim to be well-informed and keep an emergency dialer close if any of the above symptoms occur.

Highlight on Underlying Conditions

In regards to underlying conditions that may worsen by taking Ceftolozane and Tazobactam, a special focus is given to patient diagnosed with a renal impairment. In such cases, the dosage of Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is generally lowered.

Bacteria Resistance

Taking any antibiotic carries the risk of getting a superinfection in the future. To minimize this risk, healthcare workers now do a number of checks to determine if a particular antibiotic is right for the patient.

In the past, many healthcare workers relied on the hands-on knowledge and physical exams to determine what drugs were right for patients.

Today, with revolutionary advancements in the healthcare industry, paired with the quick access to prescribers' resources, doctors can run quick cultures, via swabs for examples, to determine exactly what strains of bacteria a patient may be infected with.

Based on this line of reasoning, medical specialists advise that Ceftolozane and Tazobactam be prescribed for only the strains of bacteria that are proven to be responsive to this treatment. Some of these are outlined earlier in this guide and include:

  • Bacteroides Fragilis
  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
  • Streptococcus Salivarius

Persistent Diarrhea

One of the telltale signs of antibiotic resistance or a superinfection is when a patient has undergone treatment and weeks later, non-stop diarrhea occurs. In such cases, it is important for patients to seek medical help right away and avoid taking anti-diarrhea medicines that can be purchased over-the-counter.

Pregnant and Lactating Women

If you are nursing, pregnant, or intend to be, inform your doctor before commencing treatment with Ceftolozane and Tazobactam. Your doctor will determine if this treatment poses a risk to you and your baby.

Storage

There are specific guidelines for storage listed to preserve the integrity of Ceftolozane and Tazobactam:

  • Reconstitution with Sterile Water: After reconstituting the solution with sterile water, medical workers can keep this formula for up to one hour before placing it into the infusion bag. If more than an hour has elapsed since reconstitution, the formula should be discarded.
  • Reconstitution with 0.9% Sodium Chloride or 5% Dextrose: In cases where the solution is mixed with 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose, this can be stored at room temperature for up to 24 hours, a much longer period compared to the reconstitution with sterile water. When stored in a refrigerator, the shelf life is even longer. The insert label states that this mix can be stored for up to 7 days at temperatures of 2 to 8°C (36 to 46°F).

Medical workers should consult a supervisor for more information regarding the safety of storing the reconstituted solution.

Summary

Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is a potent antibiotic for adult patients 18 years and older who have been diagnosed with specific strains of bacterial infections that are unresponsive to traditional antibiotic treatment.

It is intended for complex intra-abdominal infections only, otherwise known as cIAI. In order to provide readers with more insight, consider a UTI for example, that makes day-to-day living a pain and one that is not getting better with a traditional doctor's prescription. In many of these case, patients end up being hospitalized and given a robust treatment schedule with Ceftolozane and Tazobactam.

The treatment is sometimes given alone. Most often, however, doctors prescribe Ceftolozane and Tazobactam with Metronidazole to effectively wipe out and prevent new bacterial growth from happening.

Administered in a hospital setting only, Ceftolozane and Tazobactam is placed into patients' veins via a slow-drip IV system that completes within an hour after each prescribed dose. In the majority of cases, patients are provided with 1 g of the solution via IV four times per day or every 8 hours for a period of 7-14 days.

Once treatment is complete, new tests are provided to verify that the patient no longer has the infection.