Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Polio, Hib Vaccine (Intramuscular)

The combination vaccine that is created from Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) as well as inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus B vaccine (IPV/Hib) is given, often to children, as a way to protect them against certain infections that can be caused by diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus (lockjaw), poliovirus, as well as Haemophilus influenzae type b.

Overview

This vaccine functions, as with any other vaccine, by prompting the body to create antibodies for protection from certain diseases. This form of medication is part of a general children's healthcare plan, and is always given before the infant's fifth birthday. Most commonly, it is given between the ages of six weeks and four years.

One of the conditions this vaccine prevents is Diphtheria, which is an illness that can cause serious complications, including but not limited to heart problems, breathing difficulties, nerve damage, pneumonia, and even death. Risk of complications, including serious ones, are increased in very young or very old patients.

Another condition that this vaccine helps to prevent is Tetanus, or lockjaw. This condition can also have very serious effects that include muscle spasms capable of breaking bones, as well as seizures. This vaccine also prevents Pertussis, or whooping cough, from occurring which can impact the breathing directly due to persistent coughing. Over time it can also result in long-lasting bronchitis, pneumonia, brain damage, seizures or death.

The diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, hib vaccine also works to prevent the body from Polio, an illness that can result in paralysis of the muscles and affect the patient's breathing to the point that they need support from a breathing machine. Polio has no cure, but can be prevented from occurring in the first place with this vaccine.

Finally, this vaccine helps to prevent infection by an illness called Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib). This condition can cause several life-threatening illnesses, including epiglottitis (causing death by suffocation), meningitis, pneumonia, pericarditis (directly affecting the heart), and septic arthritis.

This vaccine is delivered as an injection and is only designed to be administered by a medical professional under specific, clinical circumstances approved the patients' doctor.

Conditions Treated

  • Protection against infections caused by tetanus (lockjaw), diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b and poliovirus.

Type Of Medicine

  • Suspension
  • Powder for Suspension

Side Effects

Along with the required effects of this vaccine, due to the nature of this drug containing reduce quantities of the conditions it prevents there may be some unexpected or unwanted side effects. It is not likely that every side effect will occur in a patient, but due to the age range of patients taking this vaccine, it is important that their parent or guardian keeps a close eye on their child's condition following this vaccine being administered.

Should any of the listed side effects occur after taking the diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, hib vaccine, it is vital to consult their doctor as soon as you can:

  • Wrinkled skin
  • Unusual tiredness or weakness
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Thirst
  • Swelling of the face, eyes, lips, hands, or feet
  • Sunken eyes
  • Stuffy nose
  • Stiff neck or back
  • Sore throat
  • Sneezing
  • Sneezing
  • Slow breathing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe headache
  • Runny nose
  • Redness of the skin
  • Rash
  • Rapid breathing
  • Noisy breathing
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Lightheadedness
  • Joint pain, stiffness, or swelling
  • Itching
  • Irritation
  • Increase in heart rate
  • Hoarseness
  • Hives
  • General feeling of illness
  • Fever
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Fainting
  • Dry mouth
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Diarrhea
  • Decreased urination
  • Crying (persistent and inconsolable) within 48 hours, lasting 3+ hours
  • Coughing or shortness of breath
  • Confusion
  • Cold or flu-like symptoms
  • Chills
  • Chest pain
  • Bluish color on the lips, fingernails, palms, skin, or nail beds
  • Abdominal or stomach pain

Not all side effects that occur as a result of this vaccine require medical attention, either urgent or at all. These conditions or effects may go away gradually following this vaccine being administered, as the body returns to normal. A medical professional should be able to let you know ways that you could avoid certain side effects, and should be consulted if side effects last longer than expected or are causing issues for the patient.

  • Warmth at the injection site
  • Vomiting
  • Unusual drowsiness or tiredness
  • Ulceration
  • Tenderness at the injection site
  • Symptoms of an infection
  • Stinging feeling
  • Sleepiness or unusual drowsiness
  • Scarring
  • Redness of the skin
  • Paleness of the skin
  • Pain both on the skin or internally
  • Numbness
  • Lump
  • Itching
  • Irritability
  • Inflammation or swelling
  • Hives
  • Feeling of burning or coldness
  • Discoloration of the skin
  • Change in skin color at the injection site
  • Blistering on the skin
  • Bleeding
  • A persistent rash
  • A feeling of pressure or tenderness

Should your child experience a bad allergic reaction to their first vaccine, they should not then receive a booster vaccine. It's important that you keep track of all side effects experienced by your child in the first round of vaccines, so you can notify your doctor of any potential problems. In the majority of cases, your child taking this vaccine to prevent these conditions outweighs the side effects, as these conditions are very serious and can result in death.

If your child is experiencing any of the following symptoms of allergic reaction as listed, it's important to call for emergency medical help as soon as possible:

  • Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat
  • Hives
  • Difficulty breathing

Dosage

A trained medical professional will administer this vaccine to your child, which is given as a shot directly into one of their muscles. Each vaccine consists of a series of four shots, of which it's essential that every shot is taken at each scheduled appointment.

If on a course of vaccination, your child may receive other shots at the same time, in a different area of the body. In addition, your child may also be prescribed medication to help treat or prevent certain side effects of this vaccine, including fever or soreness.

Should you miss a dose of booster for whatever reason, it's important to book another appointment and get back on schedule. Treatment is not required to start over, but must be completed in order for the child to be fully protected.

Interaction:

Certain medicines or medical vaccines should not be used at the same time. This is because certain medicines or chemicals can interact with one another, and result in negative or problematic side effects for the patient. Sometimes, however, taking medications alongside vaccines may be essential for the health of your child. Consult with your doctor to see if there are any concerns regarding your child's medication alongside this vaccine.

The following vaccines may cause interaction, and should be discussed with your child's doctor:

  • Meningococcal Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Quadrivalent)

This vaccine is not known to specifically have negative interactions with food, alcohol or tobacco. However, it is always recommended that you discuss the diet of your child, their eating schedule and any other concerns with your doctor prior to them administering this vaccine to ensure that there will be no ill effect.

The pre-existence of certain medical conditions or problems can affect the use of this vaccine, and may also affect the effectiveness of its prevention. It's important that a medical professional is notified if you child is suffering from any of the following conditions

  • Weakened immune system
  • Progressive neurologic disorder
  • Immunodeficiency disorder
  • Guillain-Barr syndrome
  • Brain disease (including coma, decreased level of consciousness, or seizures)

If your child has suffered from a serious reaction to any vaccine including this one, it's important to talk to your doctor about all the benefits and risks this medication holds. Some of the more serious reactions that can be caused by Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Polio, Hib Vaccine include being less responsive than usual, continuous crying without stopping for 3+ hours, experiencing a seizure both with or without a fever, or experiencing a fever that is 105 degrees F or higher.

Warnings

Your child should not receive the Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Polio, Hib Vaccine vaccine if they have ever suffered from a life-threatening allergic reaction to any form vaccine containing that contains diphtheria, pertussis, haemophilus, polio, or tetanus.

Your child may not be suitable to take this vaccine should he or she have exhibited any of the listed symptoms and conditions following a similar vaccine:

  • Guillain-Barr syndrome (within 6 weeks of receiving a vaccine containing tetanus)
  • Fainting or going into shock (within 48 hours of receiving a vaccine containing pertussis)
  • Excessive crying for 3 hours or longer
  • An allergy to neomycin, streptomycin or polymyxin B, or yeast
  • A very high fever (over 104 degrees)
  • A seizure (within 3 days after receiving a vaccine containing pertussis)

Should your child have any of these other conditions or illnesses, temporary or otherwise, this vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all based on the decision and discretion of your child's doctor:

  • A weakened immune system (caused by disease/bone marrow transplant/using certain medications/receiving cancer treatments)
  • A history of seizures or premature birth

Your child will still be fine to receive this vaccine if he or she has a minor cold at the time of their jab. In the case of a more severe illness that presents with a fever or any type of infection, no matter how minor, your doctor will likely decide to wait until the child is better before administering this vaccine.

It is critical that your doctor is able to check your child and is notified of any side effects or symptoms following their shots with regular visits. This ensures that this vaccine is working correctly and allows the doctor to check for unwanted effects that are harder to detect. It is very important that you stick to the schedule given to your by your doctor, and return to your child's doctor for the next dose in the series at the right day and time.

Your doctor should be fully informed of both yours and your child's full medical history, which allows them to make the most informed decision about choices of medication, shots and other conditions. Let your child's doctor know about any and all other vaccines that your child has had prior to this one. This vaccine may be used to finish a series of vaccines.

Despite working to prevent certain infections in healthy children, this vaccine does not treat an active infection. If your child has an infection for any reason, including due to diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, or Haemophilus influenzae type b, your child will need separate medications in order to to treat these infections.

Storage

This medication is given as a shot by a medical professional, and as such is kept in a clinical and temperature-controlled environment. It is important to follow the storage instructions included with this vaccine and to keep it within these safe temperatures until usage.

This medication should always be kept safely out of the reach of non-medical professionals and children, and stored in a locked medical cupboard.

Summary

This shot is made of of the Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine DTaP), prescribed in combination with both Haemophilus B conjugate vaccine and inactivated poliovirus (Hib and IPV). This vaccine acts by prompting the body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against these diseases, thereby preventing them from becoming infected with dangerous and life-threatening illnesses.

This vaccine is solely given to children or infants who are between 6 weeks to 4 years of age, and is given before the child's 5th birthday as a set of four shots that are given at regular intervals. These shots will be given by a medical professional and are often used as the final course of treatment in a series of shots, in order to protect your child from a variety of different conditions and illnesses.

Due to the nature of this vaccine, certain diseases or infections are contained within in small quantities. In children that are not well at the time they are expected to take this shot, it is likely that your doctor will postpone administering this vaccine, as this can cause further side effects.

This vaccine is strongly advised as a required shot for children, as it prevents life-threatening conditions, some of which, like Polio, do not have a cure once they have been contracted. It is important to speak to a doctor to weigh up the risks and benefits of your child taking these shots, especially if they are suffering from a health condition as this may affect the decision of the doctor.