Epinephrine is a naturally occurring hormone that is better known by its other name, adrenaline. Its effects can often be felt when we are startled or threatened. Adrenaline is responsible for out supercharged response to jump scares, putting us into fight or flight mode. Apart from its massive natural effects on our physiology, it can be applied topically to a patient's eyes, where it can relieve pressure there and decrease fluid production. For this reason, it is useful during eye surgeries. It was sometimes prescribed as a treatment for ophthalmic glaucoma.
Epinephrine was first isolated in 1895 by a a Polish physiologist. The American Ophthalmologist William Bates discovered epinephrine's usefulness to eye surgeries in 1896.
Epinephrine ophthalmic has been discontinued. Patients will not be able to use epinephrine ophthalmic to treat their condition(s).
Epinephrine ophthalmic can cause a handful of different side effects, along with its desired effects. Because it is applied directly into the eye and not taken orally or injected, it will not cause as many side effects as other medicines. Some side effects may be serious and require medical attention. Other side effects may only be as serious as the discomfort they cause the patient. Patients who begin to experience any of the following side effects after beginning to use epinephrine ophthalmic should contact their doctor immediately. Medical attention may be necessary.
Not all side effects necessarily demand medical attention. Some side effects are simply the product of the eye adapting to the sudden influx of new medicine. Patients who begin to experience any of the following side effects after using epinephrine ophthalmic should consult with their doctor to find out how to lessen their most unpleasant side effects.
This is not necessarily a complete list of side effects. Patients who begin to experience any new or worsening symptoms after beginning to use epinephrine ophthalmic should contact their doctor immediately. Patients can report new side effects to the FDA by calling 1-(800) FDA-1088 or on the web by going to www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Epinephrine ophthalmic is sometimes used during eye surgery. To this end, epinephrine ophthalmic should be administered by a doctor. Patients should simply follow the doctor's instructions in order to use epinephrine ophthalmic properly.
Patients who have forgotten to apply a dose of epinephrine ophthalmic should take the dos they missed as soon as they remember. However, if it is nearly time for them to take their next dose they should forgo to dose they missed and simply wait until their next dose. Patients should never attempt to retroactively make up for a missed dose by applying a double dose.
Epinephrine ophthalmic can interact with a handful of different drugs, some of them very seriously. Potential interactions can result in a variety of different affects, including a massive spike in blood pressure. The following drugs should not be taken concurrently with using epinephrine ophthalmic.
The following drugs will interact negatively with epinephrine ophthalmic, but not with as much severity or with as much frequency as the drugs listed above. Nevertheless, patients should still avoid using any of the following drugs while they are using epinephrine ophthalmic. Patients who are using any of the following drugs and must begin to use epinephrine ophthalmic should consult with their doctor to determine what their best course of action is. Patients should make to inform their doctor of any and all drugs, medications, and supplements they are taking prior to deciding to use epinephrine ophthalmic.
This is not necessarily a complete list of potential interactions between epinephrine ophthalmic and any other drugs. Patients should rely on their doctors to identify any potential interactions between the drugs they are taking and epinephrine ophthalmic. Patients should enable their doctor to do this by disclosing a list of all of the drugs, medications, and supplements they are taking to their doctor.
The WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) has banned epinephrine from use as a stimulant. Epinephrine ophthalmic, however, is unlikely to pass into the patient's bloodstream in any meaningful amount, and is unlikely to produce any real stimulating effect on the patient using it. Nevertheless, patients who compete in sports which are subject to WADA rules should be aware that using epinephrine ophthalmic to treat any condition may lead to them testing positive for epinephrine use, and lead to negative repercussions within their sport.
Patients with naturally narrow angles or with narrow angle glaucoma should exercise extreme caution when considering taking epinephrine ophthalmic. In patients with narrow angle glaucoma, dilation of the pupils may cause an acute glaucoma attack. Administration of epinephrine ophthalmic may also induce transient mydriasis. Patients with narrow angle glaucoma should consult with their doctor to determine whether or not epinephrine ophthalmic is right for them.
Epinephrine is a stimulant. When it enters the bloodstream it will stimulate the patient's cardiovascular system, which can lead to increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and a greater workload on the patient's body in general. Inpatients with pre existing cardiovascular conditions, epinephrine can cause arrhythmia, palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension, and more. For this reason, patients with cardiovascular conditions should exercise extreme caution when considering using epinephrine ophthalmic. Patients with any pre existing cardiovascular conditions should consult with their doctor to find out whether or not epinephrine ophthalmic is right for them.
Patients who suffer from Aphakia (the absence of the lens in their eye) should exercise extreme caution when considering using epinephrine ophthalmic. Patients who treat Aphakia with epinephrine ophthalmic may develop cystoid macular edema. Fortunately, this condition usually reverses itself when the patient stops using epinephrine ophthalmic. Vision changes, such as loss of visual focus or blurring/distortion may also occur. Patients with Aphakia who begin to experience negative visual effects may need to lower the dose of epinephrine ophthalmic they are using, either by adjusting the dosage amount or the dosage frequency.
Additionally, patients with any of the following conditions should consult with their doctor before deciding to use epinephrine ophthalmic. Epinephrine ophthalmic may exacerbate their condition(s).
In addition, patients with a history of stroke should exercise extreme caution when considering using epinephrine ophthalmic. Epinephrine ophthalmic may make the patient more likely to suffer a stroke. Patients with a history of stroke should consult with their doctor before deciding to take epinephrine ophthalmic.
Epinephrine ophthalmic is considered a class C drug in terms of pregnancy. In animal trials, an adverse effect was observed in animal fetuses when the mother was given a dose of epinephrine which is 25 times the typical human dose. No adequate human studies have been conducted to determine whether or not epinephrine is safe for a human fetus, though. Patients who are pregnant or who may become pregnant should consult with their doctor prior to deciding to use epinephrine ophthalmic.
It is not known whether or not epinephrine can pass into breast milk or whether that epinephrine will adversely affect a breastfeeding infant. However, it is extremely unlikely that even high doses of epinephrine will, and the amount of epinephrine that passes from the eye to the bloodstream will be negligible at most. Nevertheless, breastfeeding patients should consult with their doctor before deciding to use epinephrine ophthalmic.
Patients should not attempt to take epinephrine ophthalmic orally or topically except through any organ but the eyes. Patients who attempt to do put themselves at risk of a host of symptoms, including overdose. Patients who accidentally swallow epinephrine ophthalmic should contact their doctor immediately or contact poison control by calling 1(800) 222-1222.
Epinephrine ophthalmic should be stored at room temperature away from heat or moisture.
The most important thing for patients to remember when considering using epinephrine ophthalmic is that it has been discontinued, and they can't. If it were not discontinued, it would be one of many different ways for a patient to fight glaucoma in the eye. Like many medicines delivered directly to the eye, it has few side effects and does not interact with many different drugs. However, because epinephrine is such a powerful compound, it does have more side effects and can interact with more drugs than many other ophthalmic drugs.
Like every drug, patients should treat epinephrine ophthalmic with respect. Epinephrine especially demands respect, as it is such a powerful compound. If patients give this drug the respect it demands, though, they should be able to take the drug in a safe and relatively side effect free fashion.