Fosinopril (Oral)

Overview

When patients are diagnosed with hypertension, it means that the pressure in their blood vessels is too high. As a result, the heart, blood vessels and other organs have to work much harder and this puts them under excess strain. If high blood pressure in not treated appropriately, it can put the patient at risk of further health issues, such as heart attacks, strokes and heart failure. In addition to this, individuals with high blood pressure may also have an increased risk of developing kidney disease, aortic aneurysms, vascular dementia and/or peripheral arterial disease.

Due to the risks associated with hypertension, it's vital that patients are treated effectively. Although high blood pressure may not cause symptoms at first, some patients may notice headaches and/or vision problems when their blood pressure becomes extremely high. Whilst consistently elevated blood pressure can cause long-term health problems, if the patient's blood pressure reaches a very high level it is known as a hypertensive crisis. This can be a life-threatening situation and should be treated as a medical emergency.

Once patients have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, they can be treated in a number of ways. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, such as Fosinopril, prevent the body from producing Angiotensin II and this helps to relax the blood vessels. As Angiotensin II causes the blood vessels to narrow, it can elevate blood pressure. When Fosinopril stops Angiotensin II from being produced, however, the blood vessels remain wider and allow more blood to pass through them, thus reducing the pressure within the blood vessels.

When Angiotensin II is produced in the body, it also triggers a certain hormone which causes the patient to retain water. By blocking the production of Angiotensin II with Fosinopril, the patient is less likely to retain water and this can also help to reduce the patient's blood pressure.

Although Fosinopril can be effective in treating high blood pressure when used in isolation, the patient may notice a more significant reduction in their blood pressure if they combine Fosinopril with lifestyle changes. If patients are overweight, for example, they may be advised to lose weight in order to reduce their blood pressure. Similarly, patients may be advised to consume less salt, reduce their caffeine intake and increase the amount of exercise they do in order to treat their hypertension.

As well as being used to treat hypertension, Fosinopril may also be prescribed to patients with congestive heart failure and/or kidney disease. As Fosinopril results in less pressure being placed on the heart and organs, it can improve the symptoms of patients who are in a state of heart failure. Whilst Fosinopril is used to manage the symptoms of congestive heart failure and/or kidney disease, it is not used in isolation. When patients are prescribed Fosinopril for the management of heart failure and/or kidney disease, they will normally be prescribed additional medications also.

Conditions Treated

Type Of Medicine

  • Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

Side Effects

When patients are prescribed medication, their physician should explain the possible side-effects which could occur. Although it's not uncommon for patients to experience some side-effects when they begin taking a new medication, these will normally be reduced once the patient becomes accustomed to the medication.

When patients begin taking Fosinopril, for example, they may notice the following side-effects:

  • Cough
  • Body pain or aches
  • Sore throat
  • Diarrhea
  • Weakness
  • Difficult breathing
  • Sneezing
  • Ear congestion
  • Runny nose
  • Fever
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Headache
  • Nasal congestion
  • Bone or muscle pain
  • Loss of voice

If patients experience the above side-effects when taking Fosinopril, they will not necessarily require medical attention. If the symptoms are fairly mild and diminish over time, for example, action may not need to be taken. However, if patients are concerned about side-effects or if they are severe, they should always obtain medical help.

In addition to this, patients will need to seek medical assistance if they experience any of the following side-effects while taking Fosinopril:

  • Chest discomfort or pain
  • Blurred vision
  • Rapid or pounding pulse
  • Chills
  • Lightheadedness, faintness or dizziness when getting up suddenly from a sitting or lying position
  • Cold sweats
  • Irregular, slow or fast heartbeat
  • Confusion
  • Unusual weakness or tiredness
  • Sweating

Patients should also obtain medical assistance if they exhibit any side-effects which are not listed above when taking this medicine.

Dosage

When patients are prescribed Fosinopril, they should take their medication exactly as their doctor has instructed. When determining what dose to prescribe a patient, doctors will take the patient's diagnosis into account, as well as their medical history, age, weight and any other medications they're taking.

Typically, however, patients are given a starting dose of 10mg per day when Fosinopril is prescribed to treat high blood pressure. The patient's dose may then be increased to either 20mg or 40mg per day, depending on how high their blood pressure is. Patients may sometimes be advised to take their medication in a split dose (i.e. twice per day). Although the patient's dose may be increased over time, patients are not usually advised to take more than 80mg of Fosinopril per day.

If children over the age of six years are treated for hypertension, however, their dose is usually 5-10mg per day, providing their weight is over 50 kilograms. If children under the age of six years are diagnosed with high blood pressure, Fosinopril may be prescribed but their dose will be calculated on an individual basis.

When Fosinopril is prescribed to patients with congestive heart failure, they may be advised to take 10mg per day as a starting dose. Following this, their dose may be increased to 20mg or 40mg per day but this is generally taken as a single dose.

Even if patients do not experience any side-effects associated with hypertension, they should keep taking their medicine as they have been instructed to. In addition to this, patients should incorporate any lifestyle changes their doctor has recommended to them whilst taking Fosinopril.

If patients forget to take a dose of Fosinopril, they should take it as soon as possible. However, if their next dose is almost due, they should skip the missed dose. It is not appropriate to take a double dose of Fosinopril, even if an earlier dose of Fosinopril has been missed.

Although this information sets out the general dosing strategy for treatment with Fosinopril, every patient is treated individually. Patients should, therefore, follow their doctors instructions when taking this medication and should seek medical advice if they are unsure how or when to take their medication.

Potential Drug Interactions:

As certain medications can interact with others, patients should inform their doctor of any other medicines, supplements or vitamins they're taking before they begin using Fosinopril. Due to the possibility of interactions occurring, Fosinopril will not usually be prescribed to patients who are already taking:

  • Sacubitril
  • Aliskiren

In addition to this, Fosinopril may not be prescribed alongside the following medicines:

  • Alteplase, Recombinant
  • Telmisartan
  • Amiloride
  • Candesartan Cilexetil
  • Azathioprine
  • Olmesartan Medoxomil
  • Azilsartan
  • Everolimus
  • Azilsartan Medoxomil
  • Mercaptopurine
  • Canrenoate
  • Triamterene
  • Eplerenone
  • Sirolimus
  • Eprosartan
  • Potassium
  • Irbesartan
  • Spironolactone
  • Lithium
  • Trimethoprim
  • Losartan
  • Valsartan

Although Fosinopril may interact with the medications listed above, doctors may still prescribe the medicine if they feel it would benefit the patient. In some instances, patients may be given a modified dose of medicine or advised to take their medications at certain times as this could help to reduce the risk of an interaction occurring.

If Fosinopril is taken alongside the following medicines, side-effects may be more likely to occur:

  • Aceclofenac
  • Diclofenac
  • Acemetacin
  • Clonixin
  • Amtolmetin Guacil
  • Dexibuprofen
  • Azosemide
  • Dexketoprofen
  • Bromfenac
  • Ethacrynic Acid
  • Bufexamac
  • Dipyrone
  • Bumetanide
  • Droxicam
  • Bupivacaine
  • Diflunisal
  • Bupivacaine Liposome
  • Mefenamic Acid
  • Capsaicin
  • Meclofenamate
  • Celecoxib
  • Ketoprofen
  • Meloxicam
  • Lumiracoxib
  • Nabumetone
  • Loxoprofen
  • Choline Salicylate
  • Indomethacin
  • Etodolac
  • Ketorolac
  • Etofenamate
  • Ibuprofen
  • Etoricoxib
  • Lornoxicam
  • Felbinac
  • Morniflumate
  • Tolmetin
  • Fenoprofen
  • Propionic Acid
  • Tolfenamic Acid
  • Fepradinol
  • Piroxicam
  • Feprazone
  • Phenylbutazone
  • Floctafenine
  • Piretanide
  • Flufenamic Acid
  • Piketoprofen
  • Flurbiprofen
  • Parecoxib
  • Furosemide
  • Proglumetacin
  • Gold Sodium Thiomalate
  • Oxyphenbutazone
  • Naproxen
  • Sulindac
  • Nepafenac
  • Salicylic Acid
  • Nesiritide
  • Propyphenazone
  • Niflumic Acid
  • Tenoxicam
  • Nimesulide
  • Proquazone
  • Nimesulide Beta Cyclodextrin
  • Salsalate
  • Oxaprozin
  • Tiaprofenic Acid
  • Rofecoxib
  • Torsemide
  • Sodium Salicylate
  • Valdecoxib

Although patients may be more at risk of side-effects if they take Fosinopril alongside the medicines listed above, this does not necessarily mean that Fosinopril won't be prescribed. Doctors may provide specific advice to reduce the risk of side-effects occurring or they may prescribe additional medication to treat any side-effects which arise.

As well as interactions occurring between prescribed medicines, interacts can also occur between over-the-counter medicines, supplements and/or vitamins. Due to this, patients should obtain medical advice before using any new medicines, supplements or vitamins once they have started taking.

Warnings

Before patients are treated with Fosinopril, doctors will want to take their medical history. There are conditions which may prevent Fosinopril from being prescribed or may require the patient to take a modified dose of medication. These include:

Although Fosinopril may be prescribed to pediatric patients between the ages of six to sixteen years, the safety of Fosinopril for patients under the age of five years has not yet been established. Due to this, physicians may prescribe an alternative medicine to patients who are under the age of five years. If Fosinopril is prescribed to patients under this age, their parents, guardians and/or caregivers should be made aware of the potential risks.

Fosinopril is often prescribed to geriatric patients but physicians should determine whether the patient has any age-related kidney, heart or liver problems before using this medicine. If so, the patient may be given a lower dose of Fosinopril.

When patients are taking Fosinopril, they should have regular consultations with their doctor. This enables their physician to determine whether the medication is working effectively and whether it is having any potentially harmful effects on the patient.

If patients experience any of the following symptoms when taking Fosinopril, they may be suffering from angioedema and will need to stop taking their medicine and obtain urgent medical care:

  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling of the arms, legs, eyes, tongue, lips or face

Similarly, severe stomach pain may indicate that the patient is suffering from intestinal angioedema. If so, patients should stop taking Fosinopril and should obtain urgent medical assistance.

When patients begin taking Fosinopril they may feel lightheaded, particularly if they attempt to stand up suddenly. However, if this side-effect worsens or if the patient faints, they should stop taking Fosinopril and should seek immediate medical help.

When patients are taking Fosinopril, they may have an increased risk of developing a condition which affects the immune system, known as neutropenia. If patients have a sore throat, fever, chills or any other sign of infection, they should seek immediate medication attention.

If patients develop yellowing of the skin and/or eyes when taking Fosinopril, it may indicate a problem with their liver. Patients should consult their physician immediately if they notice these symptoms occurring.

If patients are treated by any healthcare practitioners, they should inform them that they are taking Fosinopril. This medicine may affect the results of certain tests so physicians should be made aware that the patient is taking Fosinopril and what dose they're taking. In addition to this, patients may be advised to stop taking Fosinopril temporarily if they are due to undergo specific medical tests or procedures.

When taking Fosinopril, patients may have an increased amount of potassium in their blood. Due to this, patients should not use any salt substances which contain potassium, unless they have checked with their physician first.

Taking Fosinopril when pregnant could cause harm to an unborn fetus, particularly if Fosinopril is take during the second or third trimester. Due to this, Fosinopril is not usually prescribed to pregnant patients. Whilst taking Fosinopril, patients should use a reliable form of birth control and should contact their doctor immediately if they become pregnant when taking this medicine.

It is not known whether Fosinopril can be passed to an infant via breastfeeding or whether it is likely to cause harm to infants. Due to this, patients are generally advised not to breastfeed whilst taking Fosinopril and should seek medical advice if they are considering doing so.

Before being prescribed Fosinopril, patients should tell their doctor if they are allergic to any substances. If patients experience an allergic reaction when taking this medicine, they may exhibit the following symptoms:

  • Wheezing
  • Itching
  • Hives
  • Rash on the skin
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Swelling of the hands, face, tongue, lips, mouth and/or throat

This type of allergic reaction is a life-threatening medical emergency and patients should obtain urgent medical help if they exhibit these symptoms.

Storage

As patients are generally advised to take Fosinopril on a daily basis, they will need to keep their medication in a secure location in their home. If there are children and/or pets in the home, it's vital that they cannot access Fosinopril or any other medicines.

Although patients should follow the manufacturer's guidelines when storing Fosinopril at home, this medication can typically be kept at room temperature. However, Fosinopril should be kept away from moisture, heat and direct light.

If patients are told to discontinue treatment with Fosinopril or if they medicine reaches its use-by date, patients will need to dispose of it carefully. Medications should not be thrown out with normal household waste as they may pose a risk to other people. Instead, patients should contact their pharmacist or physician's office and gain access to a specific medicine disposal service.

Summary

Although hypertension is a common condition, it can be extremely dangerous. Patients with high blood pressure have an increased risk of developing additional health problems so it's important that hypertension is treated as quickly as possible.

Whilst patients can often reduce their blood pressure by making changes to their lifestyle, medication can also treat hypertension effectively. When taken as directed, for example, Fosinopril relaxes the blood vessels and creates more space for blood to pass through. As a result, pressure within the blood vessels is reduced and the heart is not required to work as hard.

Once the patient's blood pressure has been reduced by Fosinopril, their risk of developing further health problems should be limited as well. With successful treatment for high blood pressure, patients can, therefore, reduce their risk of suffering from heart failure, strokes, aortic aneurysms and other serious conditions.