People with type 2 diabetes tend to have excess sugar in their bloodstream because the body cannot efficiently use insulin to store sugar.
Controlling blood sugar levels in these patients helps to prevent serious medical problems such as blindness or liver damage.
Together, Glipizide and Metformin help to regulate blood sugar levels in such patients. Glipizide helps the pancreas to release insulin and the body to store blood sugar.
Metformin is a first-line treatment for diabetes. It helps the body to better use insulin that is naturally produced in the pancreas. It also reduces the amount of sugar the liver makes and the amount the intestine absorbs.
Although the medicine is for controlling high blood glucose levels, patients are still required to monitor their blood glucose regularly. This helps them keep track of their blood sugar levels, ensuring they are not too low or too high.
Glipizide and Metformin are the generic names of the US brand name Metaglip. Metaglip has since been discontinued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicines are supplied as a tablet by prescription only and are taken by mouth.
These two medicines cannot treat type 1 diabetes, but may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Most, if not all, prescription medicines cause side effects. Glipizide and Metformin may cause side effects which are expected and required as the medicine works in the body.
Other side effects are unwanted and may or may not require medical attention.
Serious side effects
Patients have developed a life-threatening condition known as lactic acidosis while taking this medicine. Early symptoms of this condition may be mild but may become worse and possibly fatal if not treated immediately.
Seek emergency medical attention right away if you experience any of the following mild (but serious) symptoms:
Also call your doctor right away if you notice any of the following side effects:
More commonly occur
Less commonly occur
The following side effects may occur, but do not usually require medical attention. They tend to go away on their own as the body gets used to the medicine. If any of them occurs and gets worse, bothers you or does not go away, tell your doctor.
More commonly occur
One or more, but not all, side effects listed here may be experienced by a patient. Some patients may also have other side effects not listed here.
You can ask your doctor or health care professional about ways to prevent or reduce side effects.
You may also call the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 to report side effects.
Glipizide and Metformin are supplied as a tablet to be taken by mouth only. Dosage usually varies from one patient to the other.
Your doctor will decide your dose based on the condition you are being treated for, your age, and the presence of other medical conditions if any. Your dose may also depend on whether the medicine is being used as a first-line or second-line treatment.
Take your dose exactly as directed and follow all other directions given to you by your doctor and pharmacist.
Dosage and other directions can be found on the prescription label. They usually include the strength of your dose, time between each dose, and the duration of treatment. Also, read the patient information leaflet for more helpful information.
The following is only a recommended dosage guide. You should stick to the dosage directions given to you by your doctor.
Treating type 2 diabetes
Adults: Start by taking 2.5 milligrams (mg) of Glipizide and 250 milligrams (mg) of Metformin. Take them once a day with a meal. Your doctor may increase your dose over the next few weeks until your blood sugar is under control.
Children: Treatment with this medicine must be determined by a doctor.
Patients with type 2 diabetes may be directed by their doctor to use the medicine along with a special diet and exercise. This helps to further control blood sugar.
As second-line therapy:
Adults: Take 2.5 milligrams (mg) of Glipizide and 500 milligrams (mg) of Metformin two times daily, with a meal. Or, you can take 5 milligrams (mg) of Glipizide and 500 milligrams (mg) of Metformin two times a day. Take with your meal.
Your doctor may gradually increase your dose until your blood glucose is under control. The starting dose should be less than the daily dose of Glipizide or Metformin you are already taking.
Children: Treatment must be determined by a doctor.
Prior treatment with a sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent and/or metformin:
Adults: Patients being switched from a sulfonylurea plus Metformin to a Glipizide and Metformin combination should be given an initial dose. This dose should not exceed the daily dose of Glipizide (or equivalent dose of another sulfonylurea) and Metformin that was being taken.
Children: Treatment must be determined by a doctor.
If you missed a dose of the medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is time to take the next dose, skip the missed dose and take the next dose on time. An extra dose should not be taken to make up for the missed dose.
Call the local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222 or seek urgent medical care if you overdose on this drug. If the patient collapses or is not breathing, call 911.
Symptoms of overdose include:
Using other medicines with Glipizide and Metformin may cause adverse interaction. Let your doctor know about all prescription and non-prescription medicines and health supplements you take.
Sometimes it may be best for the patient's health that other medicines are used.
To avoid a significant interaction, Glipizide and Metformin should not be used with the following medicines. If treatment is necessary, your doctor may change your dose or how often you take any of your medicines.
Although using any of the following medicines is not usually recommended during treatment, it may be required in some cases. To reduce the risk of significant interaction, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use any of your medicines.
The risk of certain side effects may increase if this medicine is used with any of the following other medicines. If using any of them together with Glipizide and Metformin is best for you, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use any of your medicines.
Other medicines not listed here may also interact with this medicine. You may ask your doctor for more information about other drugs that may cause interaction.
Food, alcohol, tobacco, and other medical problems may interact with this medicine.
Food, alcohol, and tobacco
Your doctor may advise you to have a meal when taking the medicine. You may also be cautioned on the use of alcohol, tobacco or other substances while taking this drug.
It is not recommended that you use this medicine with the following substance. If its use cannot be avoided, your doctor may change your dose or the time between each dose.
The presence of other medical problems may affect or be affected by the medicine. Tell your doctor of all medical problems you may have.
This medicine should not be used in patients with the following condition:
The medication may worsen the following condition:
Using insulin is recommended to help control diabetes in patients with the following conditions:
Using Metformin in patients with the following conditions may increase the risk of lactic acidosis:
Patients with the following condition should stop taking this medicine before having any medical exams or diagnostic tests that might cause less urine output than usual.
If the test shows your kidney function as normal, your doctor may tell you to start taking the medicine again 48 hours after the test.
Patients with the following conditions may be more likely to develop low blood sugar while taking this combination medicine:
You should pay attention to your symptoms, so you know how low blood sugar affects you. This will help you to quickly treat it and avoid emergency medical care.
Headache, irritability, hunger, sweating, tremor, trouble concentrating, nausea, weakness, blurred vision, tiredness, restlessness, nervousness, drowsiness, and slurred speech are common symptoms of Hypoglycemia.
It may help to carry glucose tablets, candy, milk or orange juice to use in case your blood sugar goes low.
Severe symptoms include convulsions (seizures) and loss of consciousness.
Glipizide and Metformin should be stored in a closed container and kept away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Responsibly throw away medicine that is expired or no longer needed, ideally through a drug take-back program.
You may ask your healthcare professional or local waste disposal agency how to safely dispose of unwanted medicine, needles, and syringes.
Glipizide and Metformin are two oral medicines that are effective in treating high blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes and a certain type of diabetes mellitus. They are used together as a single form of treatment.
Glipizide helps the pancreas to release insulin and the body to store blood sugar. Metformin helps the body to better use natural insulin that is produced in the pancreas. It also controls the amount of sugar the intestine absorbs.
The ability to use this combination medicine to control blood glucose levels help prevent serious medical problems, such as liver blindness or liver damage.
It is safe to use the medicine to treat young and older adults. Extra precautions need to be taken, however, in patients over 80 years of age, especially if they have other medical problems. The risk of side effects may increase due to age.
This combination medicine is not safe for patients with congestive heart failure, liver or kidney disease, or who are experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis. Precautions must be taken by a doctor when treating patients with certain other medical conditions.
This combination drug may cause a serious and possibly life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. As such, patients need to monitor their diabetes condition closely and be aware of the symptoms of lactic acidosis.
This is especially important since it can start as mild symptoms and develop into a condition that can be fatal if not treated urgently.
Patients who consume alcohol may place themselves at a greater risk of developing lactic acidosis since alcohol lowers the blood sugar level.
Even though the medicine helps control high blood sugar, patients still need to regularly monitor their blood sugar. This helps prevent medical conditions that may result from blood sugar being too high (Hyperglycemia) or too low (Hypoglycemia).
Because of the nature of type 2 diabetes and the possible health risks, patients and their household members need to be taught how to recognize side effects and when to call for emergency medical attention.