Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells, Cord Blood (Intravenous)

The cord blood stem cells are obtained from the human blood which is taken from the placenta or umbilical cord.

Overview

Hematopoietic progenitor cells, cord blood also comes in the following brand names:

  • Hemacord
  • Allocord
  • Ducord

There might be other brand names of this medication apart from those listed here.

Today, hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) are used for treating a wide variety of disorders. It's popular with the situation whereby the stem cells are derived from cord blood. It's mainly because cord blood's use in the transplant will require a less-stringent HLA match or rather tissue-typing than in adult stem cell transplants. Also, they carry a lower risk of the graft-vs-host-disease (GVHD). According to research, the transplant results are better with the related cord blood donor cells than with the unrelated cord blood or with bone marrow donor cells.

Hematopoietic progenitor cells, cord blood, is available in suspension form, and the dose is given as an injection by a trained health professional or under your doctor's immediate supervision. The medication should be administered by a needle being placed in one of your veins. The doctor can also recommend drugs to help you avoid adverse reactions to the injection.

After the administration procedure, the hematopoietic progenitor cells become white blood cells, red blood cells or platelets when they go to the bone marrow. Therefore, these cells enter the bloodstream to help restore low blood counts in people with blood disorders.

The medication is not suitable for patients who have an allergic reaction to:

  • Plasma proteins
  • Dextran 40
  • Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
  • Hydroxyethyl Starch

Currently, there are about 80 diseases that can be treated with these cells. Research continues to come up with new applications for the cord blood in the field of regenerative medicine. The FDA also approves this medication for other indications, for different groups of people, and in a different dosage than the one indicated in the label information. Meaning, it is an off-label prescribing. Talk to your doctor to know more about Hematopoietic progenitor cells, cord blood being an off-label drug.

Conditions Treated

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
  • Chronic myelogenous leukaemia
  • Acute myeloblastic leukaemia
  • Beta thalassemia
  • X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome
  • Blackfan-diamond syndrome
  • Hodgkin's disease
  • Severe combined immunodeficiency
  • Multiple myelomas
  • Hurler's syndrome
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Osteopetrosis
  • Aplastic anaemia
  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
  • Globoid cell leukodystrophy
  • Hunter's syndrome
  • Sickle cell anaemia
  • Lesch Nyhan syndrome

Type Of Medicine

  • Hematopoietic

Side Effects

Apart from the needed benefits of hematopoietic progenitor cells, cord blood injection, the medication may lead to unwanted effects. Not all of the side effects might occur to you, but if any does, be sure to seek medical assistance:

Call your doctor immediately if you notice the following allergic reactions:

  • Itching or hives
  • Chest tightness
  • Swelling of your face or hands
  • Trouble breathing
  • Swelling or tingling in your throat or mouth

Other side effects include:

  • Chest pain
  • Yellow skin or eyes
  • Fast or slow heartbeat
  • Unusual weight gain
  • Loss of appetite or weight loss
  • Fever, chills, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting
  • Swollen or tender lymph glands in your neck, armpit, or groin
  • A headache or dizziness

Some side effects that occur may not always need medical attention. They could probably disappear in the course of the treatment as your body gets adjusted to the medicine. Your doctor may also inform you ways in which you could prevent or reduce some of the side effects of this medication. If any of the following symptoms continue or they are bothersome, talk to your doctor and ask for medical assistance.

Some less severe side effects include:

  • Redness
  • Burning
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Itching
  • A lump

Less common side effects include:

  • Bleeding
  • Blistering
  • Coldness
  • Feeling of pressure
  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Numbness
  • Rash
  • Scarring
  • Soreness
  • Stinging
  • Tenderness
  • Ulceration
  • Warmth at the injection site

Remember that there are other side effects related to this medication that may not have been listed above. If a patient notices any other side effects, he/she should check with their healthcare provider. Also, you may report to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Dosage

The dosage route of hematopoietic progenitor cells, cord blood, is intravenous. The dose of this medicine is usually administered by a doctor or healthcare professional. Typically, the recommended minimum dosage is 2.5 x 107 nucleated cells/kg at cryopreservation. For one to attain the proper dosage, multiple units may be needed. Matching of at least 4 of 6 HLA-A antigens, HLA-DRBI alleles, and HLA-B antigens are recommended.

Remember that different doses that are administered to different patients do vary. If your dosage may not match the above dosage information, it's normal. Confirm with your doctor about your dosage if you have any questions.

Interactions

Medicines are known to interact, and therefore it's not advisable to use certain kinds of drugs together. In some cases, two different types of drugs can be used together even if an interaction occurs. If a doctor prescribes certain types of medicines to a patient, his/her judgement is that; the benefits of the medicine outweigh the side effects. In an incident where two different kinds of medicines that could interact are prescribed together, the doctor may consider adjusting your dose, or any other precautions might be necessary. Tell your doctor about the drugs you may be using both prescribed and non-prescribed medicines.

Food, alcohol and tobacco are known to interact with certain kinds of medicines. Therefore, you should not use this medication at or around eating time since an interaction may occur. You should also not take this medicine when eating specific kinds of food. Using tobacco products or alcohol with this medication is also not advised. Talk to your healthcare provider about using medicine with food, tobacco and alcohol.

The presence of other medical conditions in a patient can affect the use of this drug. Ensure you open up to the healthcare provider or doctor about any other medical problems that you may have such as;

  • Allergy to antibiotics (such as amoxicillin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, Bactrim®, Augmentin®, Septra®)
  • Allergy to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
  • Allergy to dextran 40
  • Hypersensitivity to plasma proteins
  • Allergy to hydroxyethyl starch

Also, consider informing your doctor if you have any other types of allergies such as dyes, food, animals, and preservatives.

Although no adequate studies have been done on whether pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers can get affected by this injection, consider not using it before talking to your doctor. You should weigh the benefits of using it against any potential risks before deciding to use it.

Warnings

Hematopoietic progenitor cells, cord blood, may result in fatal infusion reactions when receiving the injection or just a few hours after the injection. Patients should, therefore, be monitored closely for headaches, dizziness, fever or chills, muscle aches, or a rash or itchy skin. They should discontinue infusion of severe reactions.

Do not use this medication if you have a known allergy to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), hydroxyethyl starch, dextran 40, or human serum albumin. It could cause an interaction hence severe side effects.

A patient may suffer from Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), which is very fatal. Symptoms of Graft-vs-host disease may include; rush, fever, diarrhoea, yellow skin or eyes, or unexplained weight gain. The administration of the immunosuppressive therapy can decrease the risk of GVHD though.

Engraftment syndrome could progress to the multiorgan failure or death. You should receive treatment for engraftment syndrome immediately with corticosteroids.

Graft failure may also be fatal. Patients should be monitored for the laboratory evidence of the hematopoietic recovery.

Before choosing a specific unit of the hematopoietic progenitor cells, cord blood, you should consider testing for HLA antibodies to discover patients who are alloimmunized. Alloimmunization is referred to as an immune response to the foreign antigens after being exposed to genetically different tissues or cells.

Ensure your doctor knows if you are either pregnant or breastfeeding, if you have any history of allergy to antibiotics or if you have leukaemia

This medication is made from donated human blood, and other blood products have led to transmission of viruses as reported by some patients who have used this medicine. Although the risk is low, you can discuss with your doctor if you are concerned.

Always keep your appointments with your healthcare provider for he/she will want to check your urine and blood on regular visits.

Storage

The optimum storage conditions for hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from cord blood before isolation cord blood is not yet known. It's therefore evaluated that CD34+ cells isolated from the cord blood units (n=57) within one hour of collection should be stored at 4 to 25 °C for up to 4 hours.

Summary.

Cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells possess advantages of using blood cell transplantation in those patients who have a disorder that affects blood production. The medication is used to treat other medical conditions too, such as Leukemia. Apart from these benefits, the drug has some side effects that may result from the procedure including allergies or interactions from other medicines and past medical problems. To get the full benefits of this treatment, you are advised to open up to your doctor about any allergies you have, other medication, dietary supplements, alcohol and tobacco products that you are using to avoid any interaction with your medication. Always keep the doctor's appointments to receive the necessary checkups and know if the medicine is working well for you.