Magnesium Supplement (Intravenous, Oral)

Magnesium supplements can regulate magnesium deficiency for people who are receiving enough of the supplement naturally through a balanced diet.

Overview

Magnesium supplements are used to regulate magnesium levels for individuals who may be deficient. A balanced diet should cover all the deficiencies a person may have; but people who are low on magnesium levels due to certain types of treatment or illness could require magnesium supplementation. Indicators of low magnesium levels could be heartbeat irregularity, muscle weakness, or irritability.

Certain oral magnesium supplements can only be obtained with a valid prescription from your physician. Other types of magnesium supplements are available over-the-counter. Injectable magnesium can only be given under the supervision of or by a trained health care professional.

A varied and balanced diet is important for proper health and nutrition. Carefully follow the recommended diet regimen that your physician may suggest to you. Regarding your personal dietary mineral and/or vitamin supplementation needs, consult with your physician to see if they can supply you with a list of suitable foods. If you suspect that you are deficient in any particular vitamin or mineral after consulting with your doctor, you may decide to try a supplement.

The most optimal forms of magnesium are the natural forms. Leafy, green vegetables; nuts; beans; peas; and grains or cereals with the outer layer or germ not removed are the best sources of natural magnesium. Higher levels of magnesium have been found in hard water rather than soft water. High fat diets could cause lower levels of magnesium absorption to take place. Cooking could also reduce the quantity of magnesium that food naturally contains.

There are numerous ways that the needed magnesium levels are defined.

United States recommendations:

  • The RDA (recommended dietary allowance) is the quantity of minerals and vitamins necessary to maintain acceptable levels of nutrition for the majority of people. An RDA for a particular nutrient could be different based on the physical condition (for example, pregnancy), age, or sex.
  • The DV (daily value) is listed on labels for dietary supplements and foods to specify the percentage of recommended daily quantity of every nutrient that one serving provides. DV is the replacement for the former designation of Recommended Daily Allowances.

Canadian recommendations:

  • The RNI (recommended nutrient intake) determines the quantities of protein, minerals, and vitamins necessary to maintain a healthy level of nutrition and to reduce the likelihood of chronic disease taking place.

The recommended levels of daily magnesium intake are listed below:

  • Infants (birth to age 3): US (40-80 milligrams), Canada (20-50 mg)
  • Children (ages 4-6): US (120 mg), Canada (65 mg)
  • Children (ages 7-10): US (170 mg), Canada (100-135 mg)
  • Male teenagers and adults: US (270-400 mg), Canada (130-250)
  • Female teenagers and adults: US (280-300 mg), Canada (135-210)
  • Pregnant women: US (320 mg), Canada (195-245)
  • Breastfeeding women: US (340-355), Canada (245-265)

Magnesium supplements are available in the dosing forms as listed below:

  • Tablet, Extended Release
  • Tablet, Enteric Coated
  • Tablet
  • Syrup
  • Powder for Suspension
  • Powder
  • Packet
  • Liquid
  • Capsule, Liquid Filled
  • Capsule

Magnesium supplements are manufactured under the following United States brand names:

  • Phillips Milk of Magnesia
  • Maginex
  • Mag-Tab SR
  • Mag-Gel 600
  • Elite Magnesium
  • Dewees Carminative
  • Citrate Of Magnesia
  • Almora

The Canadian brand names for magnesium supplements are listed below:

  • Magnesium-Rougier
  • Magnesium
  • Magnelium
  • Mag 2
  • Liquid Calcium-Magnesium Strawberry Flavor
  • Citracal Slow Release

Conditions treated

  • Magnesium deficiency

Type of medicine

  • Dietary supplement

Side Effects

In addition to the necessary benefits, a medication can also trigger side effects that may be undesirable at times. While it is not typical for each one of the following side effects to take place, if they do happen they could require medical care.

Consult with your physician right away if you experience any of the side effects below after taking magnesium supplements.

Rare side effects (medical care required):

  • Paralysis (of the muscle)
  • Pain and irritation at site of injection for intramuscular dosage only
  • Flushing
  • Fainting or dizziness
  • Difficulty breathing

Signs of overdose (not common for people with usual kidney function)

  • Slow heartbeat
  • Fainting or dizziness
  • Drowsiness (extreme)
  • Double or blurred vision
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Decrease or increase of urine
  • Coma

Certain side effects may take place that typically do not require medical care. These particular side effects may disappear throughout the course of treatment as you become more accustomed to the supplements. In addition, your physician can likely inform you of additional methods of reducing or preventing certain side effects. Consult with your doctor if any of the side effects below become troublesome, prolonged, or if you have concerns or questions regarding them.

Less common side effects (medical care not required)

  • Diarrhea (when taken with oral form of magnesium)

Additional side effects not included here could also take place for certain patients. If other side effects are observed, consult with your medical care professional.

Contact your physician if you are seeking medical assistance regarding side effects. The Food and Drug Administration also accepts reports of side effects, and they can be reached by calling 1-800-FDA-1088.

Dosage

Patients should take magnesium supplements with food. Magnesium supplements can cause diarrhea to take place if an individual takes the supplement without food.

Notes regarding the extended-release form of the magnesium supplement:

  • Always swallow the entire tablet whole
  • Never suck or chew on the tablet
  • Certain pills may be crushed or broken and sprinkled on soft food such as applesauce. Ask your physician prior to doing so, however, as most tablets should not be broken.

Notes regarding the powder form of the magnesium supplement:

  • Empty powder into a glass.
  • Add water, and completely stir to mix powder.

Different patients will likely need to take a different dose of this medication. Follow the instructions given by your doctor or the directions on the medication bottle. The information included here summarizes only typical doses of the magnesium supplement. If you were prescribed a dose that varies from the information listed here, do not adjust it unless ordered to by your physician.

The quantity of supplement that you take will be dependent on how strong the supplement is. In addition, the quantity of doses you take every day, the allotted time in between each dose, and the total duration for which the supplement is taken will depend on your unique medical circumstances for which the magnesium deficiency exists.

For oral dose of magnesium supplements (oral solution, tablets, powder for oral solution, enteric-coated tablets, extended-release tablets, crystals to make oral solution, chewable tablets, or capsules): in order to counteract deficiency, the dose taken by mouth is determined due to typical daily recommended dose. The suggested doses below are notated according to magnesium amounts. The salt form of magnesium is a different strength and is not referred to here.

U.S. Recommended Daily Amounts of Magnesium:

  • Males (adult and adolescents): 270-400 mg daily
  • Females (adult and adolescents): 280-300 mg daily
  • Females (pregnant): 320 mg daily
  • Females (breastfeeding) 340-355 mg daily
  • Children (7-10 years old): 170 mg daily
  • Children (4-6 years old): 120 mg daily
  • Children (birth to age 3): 40-80 mg daily

Canadian Recommended Daily Amounts of Magnesium:

  • Males (adult and adolescents): 130-250 mg daily
  • Females (adult and adolescents): 135-245 mg daily
  • Females (pregnant): 195-245 mg daily
  • Females (breastfeeding) 245-265 mg daily
  • Children (7-10 years old): 100-135 mg daily
  • Children (4-6 years old): 65 mg daily
  • Children (birth to age 3): 20-50 mg daily

Recommended Dose for Treatment of Magnesium deficiency:

  • Adults, adolescents, and children: Dose should be determined by physician or nutritionist for individual patient based on deficiency needs

If a dose of magnesium is missed, it should be taken as soon as you can. However, if the next dose is closer, the missed dose may remain skipped and you may return to the original dosage schedule. Do not take a double dose of a magnesium supplement.

There should not be a reason to be concerned if the magnesium supplement is missed for 1-2 days, as it can take a period of time for the body to become severely depleted in levels of magnesium. However, if your physician has instructed you to take this supplement, attempt to remember to take it as suggested.

Interactions

While some medications should not ever be combined with supplements, in certain circumstances two supplements may be combined even if there is likelihood of an interaction taking place. Under these circumstances, your physician may choose to lower the dose, or they may decide to take other kinds of precautions to protect you as a patient.

While taking any supplement to complement your diet, it is highly important that your doctor is aware if you are taking any of the following medications. The interactions listed below were chosen due to their possible significance. The list is not entirely all-inclusive.

The use of dietary supplements (within the same class as magnesium) is not typically suggested, but certain circumstances may require the combination. If both medications are recommended at the same time, your physician may reduce the dosage or frequency for both or just one medication.

  • Vismodegib
  • Rilpivirine
  • Raltegravir
  • Quinine
  • Phenytoin
  • Pazopanib
  • Mycophenolic Acid
  • Mycophenolate Mofetil
  • Mefenamic Acid
  • Licorice
  • Levomethadyl
  • Ledipasvir
  • Ketoconazole
  • Gefitinib
  • Elvitegravir
  • Eltrombopag
  • Digoxin

Some supplements should not be taken with tobacco or alcohol due to the likelihood of interactions taking place. Consult with your doctor to find out how tobacco or alcohol may impact the effectiveness of taking magnesium supplements.

Other medical issues could impact the effectiveness of the magnesium supplement. Be sure to inform your physician if you have medical issues, specifically:

  • Heart disease: this condition could become worse if this supplement is taken
  • Kidney issues: magnesium supplements could increase the chance of hypermagnesia (excessive blood levels of magnesium) taking place, which may trigger severe side effects. Patients with kidney issues may need to recommend a lower dose of magnesium.

Warnings

Individuals taking a supplement without being instructed to by their doctor should read and carefully follow the directions listed on the bottle. Consider the following aspects prior to taking the magnesium supplement:

Inform your physician if you have experienced allergies to this supplement or other medications, even if you do not think that they could contain magnesium. Also inform your medical care professional of other kinds of allergies you may have, such as to animals, preservatives, dyes, or foods. For products that are not prescription, be sure to read the package ingredients or supplement label carefully.

Issues with children have not been identified, as long as they are receiving the recommended daily amount of magnesium (naturally from food and from supplements, if required).

Issues with elderly adults have not been identified, as long as the individual has taken an amount within the daily recommended guidelines. Research has proven that adults who are older could have reduced levels of magnesium in the blood than adults who are younger. Your physician may recommend taking a magnesium supplement if this is the case.

During pregnancy, it is imperative that you are taking enough minerals and vitamins throughout the course of your pregnancy. Healthy development and growth of the baby are reliant on a steady supply of vitamins and nutrients coming from the mother. The baby depends on these vitamins in order to properly grow. However, large quantities of supplements could be dangerous to the mother and/or baby, and amounts over the daily recommended limits should not be taken.

Storage

Never keep this supplement in an area where children can easily reach it. Keep the bottle at room temperature; away from direct light, moisture, freezing temperatures, or heat. Do not keep expired supplements or medication that is not required any longer.

Summary

Magnesium supplements can regulate magnesium levels for individuals who may be deficient. A balanced nutritional diet should cover all the shortages a person may have; but individuals who have low magnesium levels because of certain types of treatment or illness could necessitate magnesium supplementation. Signs of low magnesium levels could be heartbeat irregularity, muscle weakness, or irritability.

Certain oral magnesium supplements can only be acquired with a prescription from your physician. Other kinds of magnesium supplements are available as over-the-counter supplements. Injectable magnesium can only be administered by a trained health care professional.

A varied and balanced diet is vital for adequate health and nutrition. Carefully keep the suggested diet regimen that your physician may recommend to you. Regarding your personal dietary vitamin and/or mineral supplementation needs, consult with your physician to see if they can provide you with a list of recommended foods. If you think that you are lacking in any particular vitamin or mineral after consulting with your doctor, you may decide to try a supplement.