Maraviroc (Oral)

Maraviroc is a treatment for HIV that will help to prevent the virus from reproducing and in doing so delays the breakdown of the immune system.

Overview

Maraviroc is used in conjunction with other medications for the treatment of infection as a result of the Human immunodeficiency virus, which is commonly known as HIV.

HIV will eventually develop into acquired immune deficiency syndrome, which is commonly known as AIDS. The treatment with Maraviroc helps to slow this development of the condition.

Maraviroc cannot prevent, cure or stop the spread of HIV or AIDS. It is instead a treatment that is used to prevent the HIV virus from reproducing in the patient and this slows the rate at which the immune system is destroyed. By taking Maraviroc the development of problems that result from HIV and AIDS can be delayed. The problems related to HIV and AIDS will continue to occur over time with use of Maraviroc, however.

This medication is available only when prescribed by a doctor and is taken in the form of Selzentry solution or tablets.

Condition treated

  • Infection, resulting from HIV infection.

Type Of Medicine

  • CCR5 Antagonist

Side Effects

In addition to the desired effects from the use of Maraviroc, other side effects can also occur that are unwanted. While not all of the side effects listed herein may occur in any one patient, where they do the patient may need to seek urgent medical attention.

If you experience the following side effects from the use of Maraviroc then you will need to seek immediate attention from your doctor:

Occurring more commonly:

  • Unusual tiredness or weakness
  • Troubled breathing
  • Tightness of the chest
  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Sneezing
  • Painful cold sores or blisters on the lips, nose, eyes, or genitals
  • Painful blisters on the trunk of the body
  • Pain or tenderness around the eyes and cheekbones
  • Loss of voice
  • Headache
  • Ear congestion
  • Dizziness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
  • Difficulty with breathing
  • Coughing
  • Cough producing mucus
  • Chills
  • Burning or stinging of the skin
  • Body aches or pain

Occurring less commonly:

  • Yellow eyes or skin
  • Weight loss
  • Weight gain
  • Weakness on one side of the body, sudden and severe
  • Weakness in the arms, hands, legs, or feet
  • Watery and severe diarrhea, which may also be bloody
  • Warts on the genital area
  • Vomiting of blood
  • Unusual bleeding or bruising
  • Unsteadiness or awkwardness
  • Unpleasant breath odor
  • Unable to speak
  • Troubled breathing with exertion
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Trembling or shaking of the hands or feet
  • Tingling feelings
  • Temporary blindness
  • Tearing
  • Swollen glands
  • Swelling of the face, fingers, feet, or lower legs
  • Sweating
  • Sudden loss of consciousness
  • Stomach pain, continuing
  • Stomach lumps
  • Stiff neck or back
  • Spread of cancer to the liver
  • Slurred speech
  • Slow, fast, or irregular heartbeat
  • Skin lumps
  • Shivering
  • Shakiness in the legs, arms, hands, or feet
  • Severe or sudden headache
  • Severe abdominal or stomach cramps and pain
  • Sensitivity of the eye to light
  • Redness, pain, swelling of the eye, eyelid, or inner lining of the eyelid
  • Redness or swelling in the ear
  • Prickling
  • Pounding in the ears
  • Pale skin
  • Pain, swelling, or numbness in the mouth or jaw
  • Pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Numbness
  • Noisy breathing
  • Nervousness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Muscle cramps or spasms
  • Muscle aches, pains, or stiffness
  • Lumps in the tongue
  • Loss of taste
  • Loss of bladder control
  • Loss of appetite
  • Loosening of a tooth
  • Lightheadedness
  • Light-colored stools
  • Joint pain
  • Itching or rash
  • Itching
  • Irregular breathing
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Inability to speak
  • Heavy jaw feeling
  • General feeling of tiredness or weakness
  • General feeling of discomfort or illness
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Fever
  • Fast, weak pulse
  • Eye pain
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Earache
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Discharge or excessive tearing
  • Dilated neck veins
  • Diarrhea
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Crawling
  • Convulsions
  • Confusion
  • Cold, clammy skin
  • Clay-colored stools
  • Choking
  • Chest pain, discomfort, or heaviness
  • Change in consciousness
  • Burning, itching, and pain in the hairy areas, pus at the root of the hair
  • Burning, dry, or itching eyes
  • Burning
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Blood in the urine
  • Black, tarry stools
  • Arm, back, or jaw pain
  • Abdominal or stomach pain or tenderness
  • "pins and needles

Frequency of incidence not known:

  • White spots in the mouth or on the lips
  • Sores or ulcers
  • Red, irritated eyes
  • Red skin lesions, often with a purple center
  • Muscle pain
  • Cough
  • Blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin

Other side effects from the use of Maraviroc can also occur that are milder and less serious. These side effects do not normally require that you seek medical attention but if they do become bothersome or are ongoing then you can consult your doctor for advice on alleviating them:

Occurring more commonly:

  • Swelling or redness in the joints
  • Increased or decreased appetite
  • Difficulty with moving
  • Difficulty in passing a stool

Occurring less commonly:

  • Unusually warm skin
  • Trouble in concentrating
  • Tiredness
  • Stomach discomfort or upset
  • Sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or tongue or inside the mouth
  • Skin rash, encrusted, scaly, and oozing
  • Redistribution or accumulation of body fat
  • Loss of interest or pleasure
  • Irritability
  • Indigestion
  • Heartburn
  • Flushing or redness of the skin
  • Feeling sad or empty
  • Discouragement
  • Canker sores
  • Blistering, crusting, irritation, or reddening of the skin
  • Belching
  • Acid or sour stomach

Other side effects that have not been listed herein can also occur with the use of Maraviroc. If you experience any other side effects then you should consult your doctor about how best to react. If you believe your health to be at immediate risk, however, then you should always contact the emergency services.

Dosage

This medication will always be issued with a medication guide. You must read this thoroughly and ensure that you understand all that it contains. If you have any questions about the information then you should consult your doctor before use.

This medication will be prescribed with other medications for the treatment of HIV. Your dose will be determined based on all of the medications that you are taking and as such it is essential that you take them all as directed by your doctor. This includes taking them at the correct times to ensure best effect and avoid interactions.

You should take this medication for the full course, even if you begin to feel better. Ceasing use will cause the condition to return and it may be harder to control once again.

This medication is most effective when a constant amount is present in the body. You should not miss doses and should take it regularly. Plan your dosing time carefully to make this easiest to achieve.

You should not make any changes to your dose without consulting your doctor and you cannot miss doses. Do not allow yourself to run out of this medication and arrange to get more ahead of time so that you don't.

You should take Maraviroc tablets whole and should not break or damage them in any way. Do not chew them.

You should take the Maraviroc solution using only the dosing syringe provided. Do not use household items to measure the solution as they may not be accurate.

This medication can be taken either with or without food.

The following dosing information is a guideline only and should not be used to make changes to your dose. The dose you will be given will depend on a range of factors including your personal condition and the other medications you have been prescribed. The following information is a guideline only.

Adults should be treated with a dose of either 150, 300 or 600mg taken twice daily at the same time as other medications. The doctor may make adjustments to this dosing.

Children aged over 2 and with a weight of a minimum of 10kg will have their dose calculated by a doctor. The dose is based on body weight and is usually 50-150mg taken twice daily at the same time as other medications. This dose may be adjusted by the doctor.

For children aged 2 and under and below the weight of 10kg, the doctor will need to calculate the dose in each case and may decide not to use this medication at all.

If a dose is missed then you should take it as soon as possible. If your next dose is within 6 hours, however, then you should skip the dose you have missed and return to your normal schedule of dosing.

Interactions

Certain medications should not ever be used in conjunction with one another. To do so can cause drug interactions to occur that can be very serious or even life-threatening. In some cases, medications may prevent one another from working or the risk of side effects may be increased. To avoid the occurrence of drug interactions you should inform your doctor of all medications that you are taking before you begin use of Maraviroc. This includes all prescribed treatments, over the counter medications and any other substances that you use. For the use of Maraviroc it is especially important that you inform your doctor if you are taking any of the following:

The use of Maraviroc with the following medications is not recommended and your doctor may decide not to prescribe it:

  • Voriconazole
  • Telithromycin
  • Telaprevir
  • St John's Wort
  • Saquinavir
  • Ritonavir
  • Rifapentine
  • Rifampin
  • Rifabutin
  • Primidone
  • Posaconazole
  • Phenytoin
  • Nelfinavir
  • Nefazodone
  • Lopinavir
  • Ketoconazole
  • Itraconazole
  • Indinavir
  • Idelalisib
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Enzalutamide
  • Conivaptan
  • Cobicistat
  • Clarithromycin
  • Carbamazepine
  • Boceprevir
  • Atazanavir

Use of this medication with Maraviroc is not normally recommended but in some cases it may be required. If you are prescribed both medications then the doctor may make adjustments to the dose or frequency of use:

  • Lumacaftor
  • Etravirine
  • Efavirenz
  • Ceritinib

Using Maraviroc with the following may increase the risk of certain side effects. While both may be used together in some cases the dose and frequency of use may need to be adjusted:

  • Fosamprenavir

Maraviroc can also interact with other medications not listed herein. These medications have been selected for severity of interaction and the list is not all-inclusive. Ensure that your doctor is aware of all medications of all kinds that you are taking before use.

Certain medical problems can also affect the use of Maraviroc. You should inform your doctor of all medical conditions from which you suffer as some conditions may be worsened by use. This is especially important in the following cases:

These conditions may be worsened by the use of Maraviroc:

  • Heart disease
  • Liver problems
  • Postural hypotension

The effects and side effects of Maraviroc may be worsened by these medical problems:

Patients with severe kidney disease should not ever be treated with this medication.

Other health problems not listed herein can also affect the use of Maraviroc. Patients must ensure that the doctor is fully aware of their full medical history before beginning treatment.

Warnings

Before you begin use of Maraviroc it is essential that you consider the risks of use in relation to the benefits of use. You should make the decision to use this treatment with your doctor having ensured that all of the following factors have been taken into account:

Allergies: You must inform your doctor of all allergies from which you suffer including allergies to dyes, foods, animals, preservative and other substances. It is especially important that you inform your doctor if you have ever reacted badly to any medication in the past. Allergies to certain substances may prohibit the use of this treatment in some cases.

Pediatric: Safety and efficiency have been established down to the age of 2+ but not in infants below this age. You should discuss this with your doctor before beginning use of Maraviroc.

Geriatric: There are no known limitations to the use of this treatment in elderly patients and no age-specific problems have been realized in use. Elderly patients are more likely, however, to be suffering from other conditions that may impact upon the use of this medication. Conditions such as kidney and liver disease will be more prevalent and may require dosage adjustments to be made.

Pregnancy: There is minimal risk to the use of this medication when pregnant. Patients should inform their doctor if they are pregnant or if they become pregnant during use, however. It is important to note that children born to HIV+ parents will be born with HIV. Discuss this with your doctor and use appropriate contraception to prevent this from occurring.

Breastfeeding: The risks of breastfeeding with this medication are unknown. There is a risk to breastfeeding a child when HIV+, however, as the infection could be passed on to the infant. You should discuss this with your doctor and should weigh the risks against the benefits of continuing to breastfeed.

Your doctor will need to see you regularly when you are being treated with this medication. Your progress will need to be checked and blood tests will need to be taken so that the doctor can determine if any unwanted side effects are occurring.

The patient may notice an improvement in their immune system when taking this medication. You should inform your doctor if you notice any such changes. In some cases the improved immune system may enable the body to start fighting other medical conditions that were previously unknown. When this occurs further treatment may need to be given to help fight these conditions. Common examples of this include pneumonia, herpes, tuberculosis, Grave's disease, polymyositis and Guillain-Barre syndrome.

This medication can cause you to be dizzy or unsteady. If you experience this then you should not drive or operate any machinery while in this state. Remember that it is your legal responsibility to ensure that you and others are safe when doing so. You may begin to feel dizzy when standing up suddenly too.

This medication can increase the risk of the patient developing cancer and infections. You should discuss this with your doctor before you begin use.

Maraviroc may cause you to suffer from serious allergic reactions that affect the skin and liver. You should report any of the following symptoms to your doctor immediately:

  • Darkened urine
  • Fever
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Vomiting
  • Yellowing of the eyes
  • Yellowing of the skin
  • Peeling of the skin
  • Loosening of the skin
  • Ulcers on the skin
  • Rash
  • Joint soreness

This medication will do nothing to protect you from passing on the HIV infection to others. You must ensure that you understand how to practice safe sex, even if your partner has HIV. You must use a barrier method to prevent passing on the infection and to prevent pregnancy.

Do not reuse needles or share needles with others. Doing so can transfer HIV to others through your blood. If you have any drug dependency then you should inform your doctor and seek help to overcome this.

Do not take any other medications with Maraviroc unless it has been approved for your use by your doctor. Doing so can put you at serious risk.

Storage

You should store this medication in a sealed container at room temperature. Store the medication away from heat, out of direct light and away from moisture.

You must keep this medication out of the reach of children at all times, even when the treatment is for them.

Do not keep outdated medication for longer than required and ensure any unwanted medication is disposed of properly and safely. Your healthcare professional will be able to advise you in this.

Summary

Maraviroc is used in combination with other medications in the treatment of HIV. It is not a cure for HIV but it will slow its progression and delay the effects of the condition. It can also slow the development of HIV into AIDS.

Maraviroc is not in any way a protection from HIV and will not prevent you from passing it on to others through transfer of blood or through sexual intercourse. You must know how to practice safe sex and should use barrier methods as well as forms of birth control to prevent pregnancy.

Maraviroc can cause a wide range of side effects to occur and some of these can be very serious, including an increased risk of developing cancer from use. Patients should ensure that they fully understand the risks of use before they begin this treatment and should ensure that they have read the medication guide thoroughly. You should ask your doctor if you have any questions about this treatment and the side effects.