Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live (Injection, Intramuscule)

Overview

When patients contract the measles virus, they can experience a number of unpleasant symptoms. Characterized by a flat, red rash on the face and body, measles can also cause white spots in the mouth, cough, runny nose, eye irritation and a fever. Although these symptoms are generally short-lived, measles can have serious complications and may even be fatal in some cases.

Similarly, rubella can cause a myriad of short-term symptoms, such as, a high temperature, a rash on the face and body, aching joints and swollen glands. Also known as German measles, rubella can cause complications and patients may develop infections of the ear or inflammation of the brain as a result of contracting the disease.

Furthermore, rubella can be extremely dangerous if it is contracted by pregnant women. If expectant mothers contract the disease within the first trimester of pregnancy, it is like to result in a miscarriage of the baby being stillborn. If the baby survives, it may be born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) which can cause cerebral, auditory, ophthalmic and/or cardiac defects. The seriousness of CRS is one of the main reasons that people are immunized against rubella.

As both measles and rubella are highly contagious, vaccinations are recommended for the vast majority of people. Although patients may now be given a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, instead of the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, immunizing against the diseases separately is still appropriate in some cases.

When Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live is administered, patients are given a small, weakened dose of the virus. This prompts the body to create antibodies against both the measles and rubella viruses. Following this, the patient is unlikely to contract either disease and should not, therefore, be able to transmit the disease to anyone else.

Conditions Treated

  • Measles (Preventative vaccination)
  • Rubella (Preventative vaccination)

Type Of Medicine

  • Immunizing agent

Side Effects

After the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live has been administered, patients may experience the following side-effects:

  • Stinging or burning at the place of the injection
  • Headache (mild)
  • Runny nose
  • Fever between 100 and 103 °F (37.7 and 39.4 °C)
  • Swelling of the glands in neck
  • Rash on the skin
  • Pain or aching in the joints
  • Tenderness, redness, swelling, itching or a hard lump at the site of the injection
  • Nausea
  • Vague feeling of bodily discomfort
  • Sore throat

Although anyone can experience the above symptoms, they are more commonly seen in adult patients who have had the vaccine and are particularly common in women. However, if the patient's side-effects are fairly mild and diminish over time, further medical treatment may not be necessary. If patients are concerned about the presence of side-effects after having the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, they should seek medical advice.

Similarly, patients should consult their physician immediately if they develop the following side-effects after being given the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live:

  • Fever over 103 °F (39.4 °C)
  • Vomiting
  • Stiff neck
  • Purple spots or bruising on skin
  • Numbness, tingling or pain of the arms, hands, feet or legs
  • Confusion
  • Tenderness or pain of the eyes
  • Convulsions (seizures)
  • Irritability
  • Double vision
  • Headache (continuing or severe)

If patients experience any other adverse effects after receiving the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, they should also obtain medical advice or assistance.

In some cases, patients may develop an allergic reaction after being treated with the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live. If so, they will require urgent medical treatment. Patients or their caregivers should call 911 or visit their nearest Emergency Room if they suspect an allergic reaction is taking place or if the patient exhibits the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty in swallowing or breathing
  • Swelling affecting the inside of the nose, face or eyes
  • Hives
  • Unusual weakness or tiredness (severe and sudden)
  • Itching, particularly of the hands or feet
  • Reddening of skin, particularly around ears

Dosage

In most cases, the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live should be given to patients who are over the age of twelve months. Whilst older children, teenagers and adults can have the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, immunizing children from a young age prevents them from contracting the diseases during their childhood.

It is particularly important that patients have the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live if they are planning to travel outside of the United States of America, if they live in a high risk location and/or they are female and of childbearing age.

If patients are given the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live when they are under the age of twelve months, the antibodies given to them by their mother could affect the efficacy of the vaccine. Due to this, patients are usually immunized when they are over the age of twelve months. If patients have a particularly high risk of contracting measles or rubella, they may be immunized before the age of twelve months but may require an additional dose of the vaccine once they are over the age of twelve months.

Generally, patients are given just one dose of the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live and this is usually injected into their muscle or under the skin. As the injection will be administered by a healthcare practitioner, patients will not need to calculate their own dose of medication.

Potential Drug Interactions:

Before patients have the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, they should tell their doctor if they are taking any medicines, including prescription medicines, over-the-counter medications, supplements or vitamins. There are some substances which can interact with the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live and they should not be used in conjunction with one another.

For example, the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live may not be given to patients who are already taking one of the following medicines:

  • Alemtuzumab
  • Epirubicin
  • Bendamustine
  • Mercaptopurine
  • Bortezomib
  • Lomustine
  • Bosutinib
  • Mitomycin
  • Cabazitaxel
  • Melphalan
  • Capecitabine
  • Methotrexate
  • Carboplatin
  • Mechlorethamine
  • Carfilzomib
  • Mitoxantrone
  • Carmustine
  • Ponatinib
  • Chlorambucil
  • Rituximab
  • Cisplatin
  • Cladribine
  • Procarbazine
  • Clofarabine
  • Pemetrexed
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Pentostatin
  • Cytarabine
  • Temozolomide
  • Cytarabine Liposome
  • Paclitaxel
  • Dacarbazine
  • Nilotinib
  • Dasatinib
  • Ofatumumab
  • Daunorubicin
  • Nelarabine
  • Daunorubicin Citrate Liposome
  • Oxaliplatin
  • Interferon Alfa
  • Deflazacort
  • Irinotecan
  • Docetaxel
  • Paclitaxel Protein-Bound
  • Doxorubicin
  • Imatinib
  • Etoposide
  • Irinotecan Liposome
  • Fludarabine
  • Teniposide
  • Fluorouracil
  • Topotecan
  • Ifosfamide
  • Gemcitabine
  • Tositumomab
  • Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin
  • Vinorelbine
  • Hydroxyurea
  • Vinblastine
  • Idarubicin

If patients are taking any of the above medicines, they may be advised to stop using them temporarily so that they can have the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live. However, patients should not stop taking any medications unless they have been advised to do so by a physician.

Similarly, using the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live alongside the following medications is not usually advisable:

  • Adalimumab
  • Trabectedin
  • Azathioprine
  • Teriflunomide
  • Certolizumab Pegol
  • Rilonacept
  • Cyclosporine
  • Mycophenolic Acid
  • Etanercept
  • Leflunomide
  • Infliximab
  • Meningococcal Vaccine
  • Everolimus
  • Secukinumab
  • Fingolimod
  • Sirolimus
  • Golimumab
  • Ustekinumab
  • Immune Globulin

However, if it is necessary to give the patient the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live whilst they are taking one of the medications listed above, they may be advised to take their medication at a specific time or their dose may be temporarily reduced by their doctor.

Patients should also be aware that they could experience increased side-effects if they are taking any of the following when the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live is given:

  • Abatacept
  • Vaccinia Immune Globulin, Human
  • Cytomegalovirus Immune Globulin, Human
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin, Human
  • Hepatitis B Immune Globulin
  • Tetanus Immune Globulin
  • Rabies Immune Globulin
  • Varicella-Zoster Immune Globulin

After receiving the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, patients should obtain medical advice before taking any medicines, supplements or vitamins, particularly if they are attempting to treat side-effects caused by the vaccine itself.

Warnings

Before accepting the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, patients should tell their doctor if they have any current health problems or a history of certain conditions. There are some medical problems which could affect the use of the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live and these may include:

  • Severe illness with accompanying fever
  • Immune deficiency condition

Unless pediatric patients between the ages of six and twelve months have a particularly high risk of contracting measles or rubella, the vaccine should usually be given once the patient has reached twelve months of age.

If patients consult with any healthcare practitioners, they should inform them that they have been treated with the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live. This is particularly important in the following situations:

  • If the patient is due to have a tuberculin skin test within four to six weeks of the vaccine being administered.
  • If patients are due to receive immune globulins and/or blood products within fourteen days of the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live being given.
  • If patients are due to have the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live within three to eleven months of receiving immune globulins and/or blood products.

If teenage or adult patients are given the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, it is important that they do not become pregnant within three months of the vaccine being administered. During this time, patients should use effective forms of birth control to prevent a pregnancy from occurring.

If patients become pregnant within three months of being immunized against measles and rubella, they should notify their physician straight away.

As the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live is categorized as a class C drug in terms of pregnancy, it is not generally given to patients who are pregnant as it can present a risk to the unborn fetus. If patients are pregnant, they must tell their doctor before they are vaccinated.

Currently, the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live is only believed to present a minimal risk to infants if it is used to treat a nursing mother. However, patients should obtain medical advice before breastfeeding if they have recently been given the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live.

If patients have any known allergies, they should notify their physician before the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live is administered. In some cases, patients may exhibit an allergic reaction after the vaccine has been injected. These symptoms may include:

  • Unusual weakness or tiredness (may be severe and sudden)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Trouble breathing or swallowing
  • Hives
  • Reddening of the skin, particularly around the ears
  • Itching, particularly of the feet or hands
  • Hoarseness
  • Swelling, which may affect the face, eyes or the inside of the nose

Storage

Prior to use, the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live is typically kept in vials and may need to be stored in a refrigerator or a controlled environment. In order to store the medication safely, the manufacturer's instructions should be followed. Generally, the vaccine should be protected from the light and should be reconstituted when it is ready to be administered or shortly before.

However, the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live is administered by a doctor or nurse in a clinical environment so patients will not be required to store the medication at home.

Summary

Due to the severity of measles and rubella, it is necessary to vaccinate the vast majority of the population. With many people experiencing serious complications as a result of these diseases, it's essential that they are prevented in as many cases as possible.

Although the Measles and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live is often replaced with the measles, mumps or rubella vaccine (MMR) or the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine (MMRV), it may still be suitable for a significant number of patients. By having the appropriate immunizations, patients and their caregivers can reduce their risk of contracting the virus and prevent the transmission of the disease.