Methyclothiazide (Oral)

It also helps prevent fluid retention and treats edema.

Overview

Methyclothiazide is an antihypertensive drug used to treat high blood pressure. It is also known by its brand names Aquatensen or Enduron. Doctors may prescribe it either exclusively to manage the condition at mild levels, or together with other blood pressure drugs to increase their antihypertensive action when the patient suffers extremely high levels of hypertension.

Increased blood pressure levels usually overwork the heart muscles and blood vessels. If the condition is left unchecked, further damage to the cardiovascular system may occur as a result. Moreover, it may cause damage to other organs and organ systems in the body such as the kidneys, the brain, and other body parts. As a result, conditions such as kidney and heart failure, loss of the ability to see, strokes and increased chances of one suffering a heart attack may come about. Drugs such as methyclothiazide together with dietary and lifestyle modifications help regulate the blood pressure hence avoiding such health risks.

It is also classified as a thiazide diuretic or a water pill. In this capacity, it assists the body to decrease the amount of water it retains. It works by causing the kidneys to get rid of unnecessary water and salt by increasing the flow and volume of urine that a patient will pass. In so doing, it will also reduce the pressure levels in the blood.

Another use of this drug is the treatment of edema or excessive fluid retention in the body tissues. This indication is given especially to individuals suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, congestive heart failure or disorders of the renal system such as nephritic syndrome, chronic kidney failure, and acute glomerulonephritis. It is also prescribed for those whose edema results from treatments involving hormones like estrogen or corticosteroids. There are more uses that doctors may indicate for methyclothiazide such as prevention of kidney stones in individuals with high levels of calcium, disrupted electrolyte levels in the body, and diabetes insipidus.

The drug is available in form of a tablet of 5 milligrams, round and blue in color and only at the prescription of a healthcare practitioner.

Conditions Treated

  • High blood pressure
  • Edema
  •  Managing salt and water retention
  •  Kidney stones
  •  Diabetes insipidus
  •  Various electrolyte disturbances

Type Of Medicine

  •  Antihypertensive drug
  •  Class: benzothiadiazine (thiazide)
  •  Diuretic

Side Effects

Unwanted or undesired reactions may present with the use of this drug alongside its intended purposes. Most of these reactions are predictable and manageable, but they differ in severity. They may also differ in frequency, however, there is inadequate research and systematic gathering of data and the existing studies cannot fully support an approximation of their frequency. The incidence is unknown for most of the adverse or mild effects from resulting from methyclothiazide.

Reducing the dose of methyclothiazide or completely discontinuing the treatment normally helps to manage the adverse side effect. Such measures may be necessary when the reactions range from moderate to extreme in severity. On the other hand, there are other side effects that are minor and do not require medical attention. Others become more manageable as the patient's body adjusts to treatment.

Some of the most adverse side effects of any drug would occur if the patient taking it is allergic. Hypersensitivity is not very common with methyclothiazide or its components but when it occurs it can prove very problematic. See your doctor immediately if any signs of an allergic reaction occur. These include reactions such as a reddish skin rash or hives, itchiness, sore blisters and having the skin peel; difficulty in talking and breathing, coughing, hoarse voice, wheezing, chest pain, and chest congestion; any swelling on the face and facial features like the tongue, mouth, lips as well as the neck and throat; lightheadedness that may lead to fainting.

  • According to observation, the following adverse effects may accompany the use ofmethyclothiazidenerally, the body may experience weakness or a feeling of sickness
  • Extreme exhaustion and fatigue.
  • Severe headaches
  • Joint and muscle pain and cramping and muscle spasms
  • Feeling light headed that may lead to passing out. Spinning sensation.
  • Hypertension
  • Problems with your vision and blurring of eyesight.
  • Numbness, an abnormal burning sensation or tingling feeling (pins and needles)
  • Blistered, loose, peeling skin. Cracked skin
  • Leg and back pain (especially lower back or side)
  • Chest pain and tightness
  • Agitation and confusion.
  • Panting and experiencing difficulty breathing/ speaking.
  • Dark urine sometimes with blood
  • Cloudy urine
  • Tarry, bloody or dark stools
  • Jaundice (yellow eyes or skin)
  • Inexplicable bruising or bleeding. Pinpoint red rashes and bleeding gums; nose bleeding.
  • Pale skin and other skin discolorations
  • Skin becomes highly sensitive to sunlight and severe sunburn
  • Chills, cold sweats or fever.
  • Cyanosis (bluing of lips and fingernails)
  • Thirst and dry mouth
  • A sore throat, cough, feeling hoarse
  • Thick bronchial secretions; frothy sputum from coughing (pinkish color); coughing up blood
  • Vomiting of blood
  • Frequent urination
  • Inability to pass urine; decreased frequency and amount and painful urination
  • Sudden increase in weight
  • Problems and irregularities in breathing; fast, difficult, noisy occasioned with wheezing
  • Unpleasant breath odor or fruity smelling breath
  • Swollen/ painful glands
  • Sore and inflamed salivary glands
  • Pain in the abdomen and stomach upsets
  • Constipation
  • Bloating and indigestion
  • Diarrhea or passing loose stool
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • General swelling of the body; swollen face, legs, ankles and feet (lower legs), fingers and hands (extremities)
  • Increased sweating
  • Anorexia
  • Drowsiness
  • Hair loss or thinning
  • Puffiness around the eyes, eyelids, face and facial features especially mouth area
  • Weak, heavy, swollen legs
  • Disinterest or reduced interest in sexual intercourse, low libido (desire, drive, performance) and inability to have/maintain an erection
  • Some of these signs link to specific problems in a given organ system. For instance, one of the serious effects is on the cardiovascular system is if the patient experiences orthostatic hypotension whereby one experiences low systolic blood pressure upon standing or sitting up from a lying down position.
  • You know it is an issue with electrolyte and fluid derangement if signs such as rapid or abnormal heartbeat, extreme thirst and dry mouth, confusion, feeling faint, seizures, fatigue, dry mouth and eyes, muscle cramps, vomiting, inability to pass urine and mood swings present.

Other nutritional and metabolic disorders may also occur such as high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), hyperuricemia and hypercalcemia. With high blood sugar levels, expect signs like sweet-smelling breath, more thirst, confusion, flushed face, drowsiness, hunger, rapid breathing among others.

Gastro-intestinal tract issues involve feeling nauseous, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea or constipation. Pancreatitis and jaundice also present. Glycosuria (sugar in urine), rapid weight gain, bloody urine, and change in urine volumes indicate that the drug may have caused kidney problems.

If side effects are too adverse, bothersome or they persist and if you experience a hypersensitivity reaction towards the drug, contact medical services as soon as possible. They will decide on the appropriate ways to help you prevent or reduce severity and incidence some of these reactions.

You may also contact the MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program run by the FDA to report these effects either over a phone call at 1-800-332-1088 by yourself or via a medical practitioner. Alternatively, you can reach them on their online platform and make your report at http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch.

Dosage

One ought to take the tablet through the mouth because rapid absorption occurs via the oral route. Aquatensen is only available upon the prescription of a doctor or a pharmacist. Dosing amount, the number of times you take the medicine and the duration of each dose depends on various factors such as the condition for which the doctor prescribes the medication and the potency of the drug. A medical practitioner will also individualize therapy by methyclothiazide according to how the patient responds to it. Always ensure you follow the directions and dosing orders as your doctor gives them or as indicated on the label and do not alter it unless a doctor advises you to do so.

Normally, the drug comes in a 5mg tablet. The average dose of the medicine used for high blood pressure may range from 2.5 to 5 milligrams once every day for adults. Therapy should last for 8 to 12 weeks and if the management of the conditions is not achieved within this time-frame then one ought to consider other anti-hypersensitivity medications. For children, the physician should determine the proper use and dose. To manage fluid retention in adults, the prescription averages at 2.5 to 10 milligrams, once per day. Again, the doctor will direct accordingly when it comes to treating children.

If you omit a dose, ensure that you take it the instant you remember but if time nears for you to take the next one, skip the dose you missed and get back to your regular schedule. Be careful not to take a double dose or extra to make up for a dose you forgot. In the occasion that one overdoses, get medical attention for them immediately. Call emergency services like 911 or the hospital if the individual passes out or is in a coma or inform the poison control center of what happened in extensive detail. Other symptoms of an aquatensen overdose include dizziness, pain in the muscles, feeling nauseated, weak, limp, thirsty and disoriented.

Major Drug Interactions

Some drugs affect the pharmacological effects of each other when a patient takes them concurrently. These effects range from an increase in the metabolism of one or the other or both drugs thus increasing toxicity to reduced absorption thus decreasing drug efficacy. There are a number of medicines that interact with and affect the working of aquatensen both as hypertension and edema therapy. Some of these include:

  • Actos (pioglitazone)
  • Urimar-T
  • Adderall XR
  • Cordarone and Cordarone IV
  • Trisenox (arsenic trioxide)
  • Utira-C
  • Azuphen MB B
  • Augmentin (amoxicillin / clavulanate)
  • Ergocalciferol
  • Calcium 600 D and Chewable Calcium with Vitamin D
  • Uramit MB
  • Propuls
  • Catapres-TTS (clonidine)
  • Vilamit MB
  • Co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim)
  • Rosuvastatin
  • Meperidine
  • Dextrose
  • Valsartan
  • Disposable Enema, Fleet Enema, Fleet Enema EXTRA and Pedia-Lax Enema (sodium biphosphate/sodium phosphate)
  • Fleet EZ-Prep, Fleet Phospho Soda (sodium biphosphate/sodium phosphate)
  • Tikosyn (dofetilide)
  • Dolasetron
  • Multaq (dronedarone)
  • Uta
  • Urogesic Blue
  • Inapsine (droperidol)
  • Innovar (droperidol / fentanyl)
  • Propranolol
  • Levothyroxine
  • Lasix (furosemide)
  • Uribel
  • Levoxyl (levothyroxine)
  • Lithium-based drugs such as Eskalith, Eskalith-CR, Lithium Carbonate ER, Lithobid, Lithonate, Lithotabs
  • Ustell
  • Paracetamol (acetaminophen), Tylenol (acetaminophen)
  • Seromycin (cycloserine)
  • Spiriva (tiotropium)
  • Urolet MB
  • Fleet Prep Kit 1, Kit 2 and Kit 3 (bisacodyl/sodium biphosphate/sodium phosphate)
  • Geodon (ziprasidone)
  • Hyolev MB (hyoscyamine / methenamine / methylene blue / phenyl salicylate / sodium biphosphate)
  • Urelle
  • Indiomin MB (hyoscyamine / methenamine / methylene blue / sodium biphosphate)
  • Urin D / S
  • Visicol
  • Orap (pimozide)
  • OsmoPrep (sodium biphosphate / sodium phosphate)
  • Phosphasal (hyoscyamine / methenamine / methylene blue / phenyl salicylate / sodium biphosphate)
  • Phosphate Laxative (sodium biphosphate / sodium phosphate)
  • Zanaflex (tizanidine)
  • UR N-C
  • Nexterone (amiodarone)
  • Pacerone (amiodarone)
  • Uro Blue, Uro-458, Uro-L, Uro-MP, Uro-Phosphate, UroAv-81, UroAv-B.
  • Vilevev MB
  • It is vital to inform the doctor if you are receiving therapy
  • For conditions such as diabetes
  • Taking drugs like lithium carbonate
  • Cortisone
  • Digitalis
  • Some of the medicines for these conditions appear in the list above. However the above is not a complete list of all the medications that may interact with aquatensen so inform the doctor of any prescription, over the counter, herbal or homemade therapy you are using.

Warnings

Ensure that you follow all the doctor's instructions on dosing and proper use. Do not share your medication. Let the doctor know of any side effects if they occur. It is also crucial to visit your physician regularly while on prescription so as to monitor the therapy progress and proper working of the drug. During these visits or upon directives by the medical practitioner, patients should get routine laboratory and blood tests done to make sure that there are no unwanted effects.

Inform your doctor of any other medicines you are taking before prescription and do not start taking any other drugs before informing them while still on methyclothiazide. Tell them of any allergies that you have and notify them before having medical tests done or surgery because taking methyclothiazide may affect some tests such as the parathyroid function test.

Like other thiazides, methyclothiazide has the tendency to reduce the amount of potassium in the body to unpredictable levels, sometimes even depleting the reserves. This property in some isolated cases has resulted in individuals previously not suffering edema to develop severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances almost as soon as they were exposed to a normal dose of either a thiazide or non-thiazide diuretic drugs upon a short-term use. This condition is known as hypokalemia and is characterized by symptoms such as thirst, dry mouth, low amounts of urine, drowsiness, body weakness and fatigue, vomiting, convulsions and rapid pulse. If these symptoms appear during therapy, seek the advice of your doctor.

Use of thiazides may result in a hepatic coma for individuals suffering progressive liver disease or experiencing impairment in hepatic functions. The coma stems from changes in fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. It is imperative for patients suffering renal or kidney-related diseases or significant impairments of the various roles of the renal system to take caution in using these thiazides because that one may develop azotemia, also leading to the occurrence of a cumulative drug effect.

According to the Food and Drug Association, the drug falls under pregnancy category B meaning it is not likely to harm an unborn fetus. Nevertheless, it is vital to inform your doctor if you are pregnant before starting a prescription. Excretion of the drug into breast milk is however likely and may be a danger to the suckling infant so it is not advisable for use in this condition. It is prudent for lactating mothers consult their healthcare provider on the issue.

Persons with a medical predisposition to various allergies or asthma may suffer hypersensitivity reactions upon the use of this medication. Other problems that may occur in various patients receiving therapy by methyclothiazide and other thiazides include frank gout, precipitation of systemic lupus erythematosus or worsening of the condition in one who already had it and hyperuricemia.

Ensure therefore that you inform your physician if you have ever suffered any of the following medical conditions:

Hypersensitivity towards any thiazide, diuretic, or methyclothiazide and its components

Any other allergic reaction towards other drugs, food, animals or manufactured product such as dyes or preservatives

  • Asthmatic attacks
  • Liver and hepatic diseases
  • Kidney and renal dysfunctions
  • Systematic lupus erythematosus
  • Gout
  • Dose adjustments and special tests are taken for patients with these conditions if they are to use aquatensen.

Do not drink alcoholic beverages because they may increase various aquatensen side effects. Take a lot of other fluids to avoid dehydration; the doctor will advise on the particular types and quantities. Do not allow your body to overheat.

Storage

One should store methyclothiazide at controlled room temperatures of 20 to 25 degrees Celsius or 68-77 degrees Fahrenheit. Do not expose the drug to excess moisture or store in the bathroom. Keep the medicine in a secure place away from the reach of children and pets, away from light and direct heat in a cool and dry place. Retain this medicine in a light-resistant container; preferably the one it came in from the pharmacy or the manufacturer. It should have a tightly closed, childproof lid.

If no longer in use or expired, do not flush it down the toilet or dispose of it in the kitchen sink. Ensure that you discard the medicine properly as the doctor, pharmacist or local waste management department advises. For methyclothiazide, the best way to get rid of it is via a medicine take-back program. However, if that is not a viable option for you and if you would like more information on the safest means of drug disposal according to FDA standards, visit this website https://goo.gl/c4Rm4p.

Summary

Aquatensen is an important type of therapy especially for fluid retention and hypertension on its own or as an adjunctive. It also helps in various other problems such as electrolyte imbalance and kidney stones in individuals with hypercalcemia. It is a prescription drug and one should only use it under the instructions and recommendations of a qualified medical practitioner. Follow their directions as well as those on the prescription label and medication guide to the letter to ensure maximum efficiency. Seek clarification from the pharmacist or physician if anything is unclear.

Do not share the medicine or self-medicate if you do not have it prescribed for you though suffering the conditions it treats. While undergoing treatment, attend regular checkups, keep all appointments to ensure the proper therapeutic function of the drug and report any side effects. Store the drugs in a safe place as is appropriate. Doses are adjusted depending on the individual's response among other factors so follow your doctor's specifications. The drug does not completely cure the conditions for which it is prescribed but helps patients to manage them and prevent them from exacerbating.