Midazolam (Oral)

Midazolam is a sedative used to produce drowsiness or relieve anxiety before minor surgery, dental work or other medical procedures.

Overview

Midazolam is used to produce drowsiness or sleepiness and to relieve anxiety before certain procedures such as surgery. It's also given to produce loss of memory (amnesia) so that the patient will not remember any undesirable effects or discomfort that may occur after a procedure or surgery.

Midazolam is what's known as a benzodiazepine. These are part of a set of medications known as central nervous system depressants, which are medications that are used in slowing down the central nervous system.

This medication is given only under the supervision of or by a trained healthcare professional. This drug is available in the dosage forms of syrup, tablet, and solution. You cannot obtain this medication on your own. You will be given this medication in a clinical or hospital setting.

Conditions treated

  • Additional Agent to Induce General Anesthesia

Type of condition

  • Oral

Side effects

Alongside the intended effects of this medication, it's used can produce some unwanted side effects. Not all of these may be present, but if they do occur, you may need to seek medical attention.

Let your doctor know if you suffer from any of the following side effects whilst using midazolam:

Less common

  • Anxiety

Rare

  • Not breathing

Seek emergency help right away if you suffer from any of the following symptoms of overdose.

Symptoms of overdose

  • Loss of consciousness

Some of the side effects that occur with this medication don't typically require medical attention. You usually find that these side effects begin to reduce once your body begins adjusting to the drug. However, you can ask your healthcare professional for advice on how to reduce these side effects. Contact your doctor if any of the following side effects listed below become bothersome or persistent.

More common

  • Vomiting

Less common

  • Rash

Rare

  • Hiccups

You may suffer from other side effects that are not listed above. If you notice anything unusual, check with your doctor.

Dosage

The final dose of this medication will depend on your age, weight, and height, any other medical conditions you suffer from, including any other medications you are taking to treat those conditions. Your doctor will also consider the strength of the medication, the duration of your treatment and your reaction to the first dose. Do not change your dose without speaking to your doctor first. If you take too much of this medication you could put yourself at risk of an overdose, but if you take too little you could limit your treatment.

Midazolam will be given to you or to your child in a clinic or hospital setting by a doctor who is trained to use this specific medication. If you're receiving this medication during surgery, your anesthesiologist or doctor will administer the medication.

After you receive this drug, you or your child will be monitored closely to ensure this medication is working correctly. Your blood pressure, breathing, nervous system, and heart will also be monitored closely to ensure the medication is not causing any unwanted side effects.

Interactions

Drug interactions can occur with this medication. These can reduce the effectiveness of the drug in treatment or produce severe side effects. To minimize the risk of interactions, you should make your doctor aware of all medications you are currently taking, alongside any other medical conditions you suffer from. You should let them know about all herbal products, vitamin supplements and prescription and nonprescription drugs. In most cases, your doctor will avoid treating you with this drug to ensure no interactions occur, but in some cases, it may still be necessary.

The use of this medication alongside any of the following is not recommended. Your doctor may avoid treating you with this drug altogether or alter some of the other medications you are taking.

  • Lopinavir

The use of this medication alongside any of the following is not typically recommended. However, in some cases, it may be necessary. If you are given both drugs at the same time, your healthcare team may change the dose or the frequency in which you use either medicine.

  • Nilotinib

The use of this medication with any of the following medications can increase your risk of specific side effects, however, the use of both may be the best treatment plan for you. If you are given both medications at the same time, your healthcare team may alter the dose or frequency in which you use either medication.

  • Echinacea

Other Interactions

Some medications cannot be used at or around the time of consuming food, or specific varieties of food since it could cause interactions. The use of tobacco or alcohol with some medications can also increase the risk of interactions.

The use of this medication with any of the following is not recommended, but in some cases, it may be unavoidable. If you are using both products together, your doctor may change your dose or give you special instructions about the use of this medication with alcohol, food or tobacco.

  • Ethanol

The use of this medication alongside any of the following can increase your risk of side effects, but again in some cases, it may be unavoidable. If you use these products together your doctor may change your dose or give you specific information about the use of this medication with these products.

  • Grapefruit Juice

Other Medical Issues

The presence of other medical conditions can affect the use of this medication. Ensure you inform your doctor of any other medical conditions you suffer from including:

  • Liver disease: caution should be exercised as it could increase effects due to a slow removal of the medication from the body.

Warnings

Before you decide to take a medication, you need to consider all the possible precautions and warnings beforehand. Below are some things to consider alongside the advice of your doctor to decide whether this is the best treatment form for you.

Allergies

Let your doctor know if you have ever suffered from an allergic reaction to this medication or other medications. You should also make them aware of any other allergies you may suffer from including, animals, dyes, foods or preservatives. You should also make your doctor aware if you suffer specifically from an allergies to cherries, as this can interact with this medication.

Pediatric population

Appropriate studies have not been conducted on the relationship of age to the effects of this drug in children below six months of age. Therefore efficacy and safety have not been established.

Geriatric population

Appropriate studies have not been conducted on the relationship of age to the effects of this drug in the geriatric population Therefore efficacy and safety have not been established.

The use in pregnancy and breastfeeding

This drug is under FDA pregnancy category D. Midazolam should not be used during pregnancy as it can cause birth defects in an unborn child. You should inform your doctor if you are pregnant.

Midazolam can also pass into breast milk and could potentially harm a nursing child. Let your doctor know if you are currently breastfeeding a child.

If you are receiving midazolam before surgery, your doctor will administer you the medication and follow your progress closely, to ensure this medication is working properly and to test for unwanted side effects.

For those who return home within a twenty-four hour period after receiving midazolam:

This drug can cause some people to feel more drowsy, tired, or experience weakness for one or two days after it has been received. It can also cause difficulty with your coordination and your ability to think. Therefore, you should not drive, use machinery, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are not altering. Avoid these things until the effects of the medication have disappeared or the day after you receive this medication (whichever one is longer).

Don't drink alcohol or take CNS depressants (these are medications which cause the central nervous system to slow down, which could possibly cause drowsiness) for around twenty-four hours after you have received midazolam unless it has been otherwise directed by your healthcare team.

To do so could add to the effects of the medication. Some examples of other CNS depressants are medications for hay fever, antihistamines, medication for other allergies, or colds, tranquilizers, other sedatives, or medication to help you sleep, prescription pain medication or narcotics, muscle relaxants, or medicine for seizures.

Don't drink or eat grapefruit while you are using this medication. Also, don't take this medication if you have an allergy to cherries.

Storage

This drug will be given in a hospital setting by a trained healthcare professional so you will not need to worry about home storage for this medication.

Summary

When used as directed, this drug is successful in creating sleepiness and relieving anxiety in those who are receiving minor surgery or medical procedures. Due to the high number of interactions possible with this medication, it's important your doctor is aware of all medications you are currently taking. This safety and efficacy of this drug have not been established in children under six months old. The safety and efficacy of this drug have not been established in the geriatric population. You should not use this drug whilst pregnant as it could produce birth defects. You should let your doctor know if you are pregnant. You should avoid breastfeeding whilst using this medication. This medication will be given to you in a clinical setting only by a doctor who is trained for the use of this medication. This medication could cause withdrawal reactions, especially if it has been used regularly for a long period of time or in high quantities. It can also cause addiction is some patients, but this risk is higher if you already suffer from an addictive nature (eg alcohol). If you require any further information about the practical uses of this medication, or you have any more questions, you should contact your local healthcare professional or doctor for further advice.