Mumps virus vaccine, live (Subcutaneous)

Overview

The mumps infection can cause severe health complications, especially in men, adolescent boys, and pregnant women. The mumps virus vaccine, live is an injection that produces its own antibodies that fight against the viral infection. The mumps immunization is not recommended for infants who are not older than 12 months; the antibodies received from their mothers may interfere with the vaccine thus reducing its required effect.

The mumps virus can lead to severe health complications such as swollen testicles and pelvic pain for men. On the other hand, pregnant women, especially during the first few months, are at a higher risk of spontaneous abortion. However, before giving you a mumps vaccine, your healthcare provider will take into consideration several factors.

Three methods can be used to ascertain whether or not you are immune to the mumps virus:

  • If you received the mumps virus vaccine, live before you were one year old, and you have in your possession the medical record as proof.
  • If you had a mumps infection earlier and you have a doctor's diagnosis.
  • If you have taken laboratory test results that prove you have mumps immunity.

If you're planning to travel out of the country, you're required to get the vaccine if you cannot prove that you're immune to mumps. Without the vaccine, you can easily contract the mumps, rubella, or measles infections in other countries and import the viruses back to the US. People who are susceptible to these diseases can either receive one vaccine (for mumps, rubella, or measles) or a mixture as required. In case the measles vaccine is not readily available, it's recommended to receive the mumps and rubella.

Individuals in high-risk groups are vulnerable to the mumps infection. They include military personnel, healthcare workers, and college students. In addition, individuals who care for patients at home or are around pregnant women are at high risk as well.

The mumps virus vaccine, live is given as an injection by a healthcare provider. Before you get the injection, it's advisable to tell your doctor if you're using other prescription medication, herbal products, or supplements. You should not be given this vaccine if you're also taking other medication, especially those that weaken the immune system, for example, steroids, radiation, or chemotherapy.

Condition treated

  • Mumps

Type Of Medicine

  • Vaccine

Side Effects

This vaccine causes some undesired side effects, apart from the needed therapeutic effects. Not all side effects are severe, but in case you spot any of the symptoms described below, seek medical assistance immediately:

  • Sudden vision problems
  • Loss of hearing
  • Extreme drowsiness
  • Fainting
  • Irritability
  • Mood swings
  • Crying for an extended period (for children)
  • Unusual weakness
  • Easy bruising
  • High fever
  • Seizures
  • Bleeding
  • Confusion
  • Stiff neck
  • Swollen, painful, or tender scrotum and testicles (for adolescent boys and men)
  • Purple spots on the skin

Several side effects are less severe and often subside within a few days after receiving the injection. Nevertheless, it is advisable to take the patient to a hospital if they become serious or chronic. These symptoms include the following:

  • Swelling, pain, or redness at the place of injection
  • Moderate migraine
  • Dizziness
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Low fever
  • Muscle pain
  • Swollen glands

The mumps virus vaccine, live may also cause allergic reactions. In case you identify the following symptoms, call your doctor or take the patient to the hospital:

  • Hives
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Skin reddening around the ears
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Itchiness of hands and feet
  • Unusual fatigue
  • Swollen nose, eyes, or face

There are other side effects of the vaccine that may not yet be reported to the FDA. It's advisable to discuss with a healthcare professional all risks involved in your particular case.

Dosage

The mumps virus vaccine, live should be administered subcutaneously but not intravascularly. The dosage should not be mixed with other live vaccines; it can be given one month before or after the other vaccination.

The recommended dosage for all ages is 0.5 mL, which should be administered through the subcutaneous route, if possible into the outer area of the patient's upper arm. For the primary vaccination, the recommended age for giving children the vaccine is 12 to 15 months. Infants who are vaccinated before they are 12 months old must be given another dose before 15 months. Revaccination will be followed before the child enrols to elementary school.

The second dose is recommended for the following individuals:

  • Students in high school
  • Those who have been recently exposed to the virus
  • Occupational risk
  • International travelers
  • Healthcare personnel, especially those handling infected persons

In cases of mumps outbreaks, an additional dose is recommended, especially for the following individuals:

  • You're at a higher risk of contracting the virus if you had extended contact, shared utensils, or drinks with an infected person; saliva droplets from the patient carry the mumps virus and can easily be transmitted through intense exposure
  • High-risk individuals who have received less than two doses of the mumps virus vaccine, live or those without vaccination proof should be given one dose

Immediately after birth, women who do not have proof of immunity or receiving the vaccine should be inoculated. On the other hand, pregnant women who have decided to terminate the pregnancy should also be vaccinated. Avoid getting pregnant for 28 days after getting the injection.

Interactions

The mumps virus vaccine interacts with a total of 675 over-the-counter medication, including generic and brand names. You should discuss with your doctor if you use any other prescription medication to prevent interactions that may lead to severe side effects. Other medicines may make the vaccine less effective. Also, alert your healthcare provider if you use herbs, vitamins, or supplements.

Some over-the-counter medicine that reacts with the vaccine includes the following:

  • Hydrocortisone
  • Abraxane
  • Actemra
  • Bosulif
  • Brentuximab
  • Brodalumab
  • Busulfan
  • Cortisone
  • Cyclosporine
  • Dacogen
  • Darzalex
  • Doxil
  • Duralone
  • Droxia
  • Ifex
  • Neoral
  • Zaltrap
  • Yondelis
  • Xatmep
  • Thioplex
  • Tepadina
  • Simulect
  • Stelara
  • Raptiva
  • Platinol
  • Pentostatin
  • Oncovin
  • Natalizumab
  • Medrol
  • Leustatin
  • Imuran
  • Floxuridine

Diseases such as bacterial and fungal infections or fever react with the vaccine to reduce its desired effects. It is recommended to receive the vaccine when you are healthy to reduce the risk of adverse reactions. Nevertheless, an individual with a current infection can still receive the injection, depending on the symptoms and medical history. Minor illnesses and superficial infections do not interact with the vaccine; it can still be given, especially if the doctor deems it beneficial to the patient.

On the other hand, if the patient exhibits signs of a severe condition, it is recommended to withhold inoculation until the patient's condition improves. For individuals also suffering from infections, healthcare providers should assess the risks and benefits to determine whether or not to administer the vaccination.

Warnings

When taking their children for the mumps virus vaccine, parents should exercise caution. Do not take your child to get a second injection of the vaccine if he or she had a severe allergic reaction the first time. In addition, write down all the side effects that the child experienced after getting the first dose, and give this information to your healthcare provider. This information will be helpful in determining if the child requires a booster dose.

When administering the medication, only sterile syringes, which are free of detergents, antiseptics, or preservatives, should be used for each injection. If you're receiving multiple injections, each injection should be given by a different syringe and at a different spot. Only use the diluents supplied with the vaccine because other substances may inactivate the vaccine.

Check with a healthcare professional if you are planning to get pregnant in the next few days after receiving the vaccine. The vaccine may cause harmful effects to the fetus.

Tell the healthcare provider that you have received this vaccine (or planning to get the injection) in case of the circumstances described below:

  • Inform your doctor when you're planning to receive immune globulins or blood within 14 days after the injection.
  • Tell your healthcare provider if you're going to be vaccinated within three months after you have received immune globulins or blood.
  • Inform your pharmacist when you're about to take a skin test for tuberculin; the vaccine may affect the results of the test.

Inform your doctor before you get the injection in case you have any disease that compromises your immunity such as HIV/AIDS. In addition to this, let the doctor know if you have ever had any cancer or you are being treated with medication that affects immunity.

Storage

When it is being shipped, the vaccine should be stored in an insulated container. The medicine should be kept inside a refrigerant at a temperature of about 10°C (50°F). The diluents must be shipped alone if dry ice is used; however, they may be shipped together, but not when frozen.

On arrival, refrigerate the diluents in a temperature range of 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) and the vaccine from 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). Keep away from sunlight because exposure may cause the virus to become inactive.

The shelf life of the vaccine is two years from the date of manufacture. Before use, check the expiry date.

After the medicine has been mixed, it must be used within eight hours or stored in a cool, dry place. Any medicine that is left after therapy should be discarded.

All the objects used for therapy should be boiled, autoclaved, or burned before they're disposed. Observe all local laws governing the disposal of toxic waste.

Summary

The mumps virus vaccine, live is given to prevent the mumps infection. It's often given to children when they're 12 to 15 months, and even in adults, especially those with plans for international travel. This medication is an active agent used for immunization; it produces antibodies that offer protection against the infection. The mumps virus can cause severe side effects to the brain such as meningitis and encephalitis.

This medicine should only be administered by a healthcare professional in a hospital. If you get an allergic reaction to the vaccine, you should not be injected a booster shot. Pregnant women should not be vaccinated because the medicine may cause harm to the unborn baby. Individuals who are suffering from a disease that weakens the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS, should not be vaccinated.