Phenolsulfonphthalein (Injection)

Overview

Phenolsulfonphthalein is an injectable diagnostic agent which is used to diagnose kidney issues or disease, and to determine how well a patient's kidneys are functioning. It is excreted almost entirely via the urine. By measuring the amount of Phenolsulfonphthalein in the urine, a doctor can ascertain whether the kidneys are functioning as they should be.

It functions by changing color when it is processed by kidneys with problems. An overgrowth of contaminants or waste products produced by dying cells will cause a change in the pH of the Phenolsulfonphthalein, resulting in a change in the indicating color.

This substance is often referred to as phenol red, on account of its red color. It exists as a red crystalline substance which is stable in the air and soluble in liquids like water and ethanol. It has a weak acidity and functions as a pH indicator.

Phenolsulfonphthalein can also be used to mimic estrogen, and in some cases, it can enhance the production of cells which express the estrogen receptor, therefore making it useful in the induction of ovarian epithelial cells from women who have been through the menopause. It may also be used off-label for other purposes, at the discretion of the prescribing doctor.

Type Of Medicine

  • Diagnostic agent

Conditions Treated

  • Kidney disease

Side Effects

Phenolsulfonphthalein does not usually cause many unwanted side effects. In some cases, it may cause wheezing or a skin rash shortly after it is administered.

As the patient continues to take the drug as prescribed, the previously mentioned side effects should begin to lessen. If these effects persist over time or appear to get worse, the patient is advised to follow this up with their doctor or healthcare provider as soon as possible. In some instances, rashes and/or wheezing may be suitable for treatment with over the counter remedies or another prescription drug, although in most cases these side effects should correct themselves shortly after the substance is excreted via the urine.

Symptoms of allergic reaction, albeit rare, can happen when undergoing tests with Phenolsulfonphthalein. Patients who experience swelling, itching or the tongue, face or throat, dizziness or difficulty breathing should seek immediate medical attention.

Not all side effects may be listed. Patients who think they may have experienced unlisted side effects while undergoing testing with this medication should consult their doctor as soon as possible, and report their findings to the FDA where pertinent.

Dosage

As with all medicines, it is very important to only take Phenolsulfonphthalein as prescribed by a qualified physician. This means that patients should avoid taking any more of the drug than they have been advised to by their doctor, both in terms of dose size and frequency. In addition to this, patients should be willing to stop taking this medication when advised to do so by their doctor, even if they still have a supply of it remaining.

Phenolsulfonphthalein passes out of the body via the urine. By measuring the amount of this compound in the urine, a doctor will be able to tell if the patient's kidneys are functioning properly.

During treatment, the patient will be asked to empty their bladder. After this Phenolsulfonphthalein is administered via direct injection. The patient will then be asked to empty their bladder into a container after the Phenolsulfonphthalein has been administered, possibly more than once if necessary. The amount of Phenolsulfonphthalein in the urine will be measured and the results of the test will be studied in detail.

Phenolsulfonphthalein examinations can be performed in a variety of ways depending on the preferences and general condition of the patient. Some patients may wish to have Phenolsulfonphthalein injected into a vein, whereas others prefer having it injected into a muscle. Generally speaking, the test can be concluded more quickly when Phenolsulfonphthalein is administered directly into a vein.

It is imperative that the patient empties their bladder completely, collecting all urine when asked to do so. Urine which is lost or otherwise left behind could potentially affect the results of the test.

While the manufacturers of the drug provide general dosage instructions, it should be reiterated that these guidelines may be altered at the discretion of the prescribing doctor. The age, height, weight and condition of the patient will all play a part in determining how much Phenolsulfonphthalein the patient should be injected with.

There are no recommended dose sizes for pediatric patients. Instead, the manufacturer of Phenolsulfonphthalein leaves this decision to be taken by the prescribing doctor.

While Phenolsulfonphthalein diagnostic tests are generally undertaken in a clinical setting (such as a hospital or doctor's surgery), patients are advised against taking double doses. If he or she misses a dose, they are advised to simply undergo the diagnostic test at a more suitable time instead. Patients who experience untoward side effects or symptoms of overdose may require immediate medical attention. If they are outside of a clinical setting, they should consider contacting their local poison control center on 1800-222-1222 or emergency services on 911 immediately. Alternatively, patients can make their way to the nearest ER, provided it is in close enough proximity.

Interactions

All drugs have the potential to interact with other drugs or chemicals within the human body. These interactions can change the effects of one or more of the involved medications. In some cases, this can lead to a drug becoming ineffective at treating the condition it was prescribed for. In other instances, interactions can cause dangerous or even fatal side effects. Because these risks exist, patients are advised to keep a detailed list of all medicines they are currently taking. This extends to complementary medicines (such as homeopathic tinctures), over the counter remedies, herbal supplements, and vitamin tablets, as well as prescribed drugs.

While there is no documented evidence of drugs which interact with Phenolsulfonphthalein, this does not mean no interactions exist. Patients who feel they may have discovered an interaction are advised to contact their doctor or pharmacist for more information and to report their findings to the FDA.

Warnings

Patients who have ever experienced an unusual allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicine should inform their doctor prior to undergoing treatment with Phenolsulfonphthalein. Patients should also tell their doctor if they are allergic to any types of foods, dyes, or preservatives. This is because Phenolsulfonphthalein may contain active or inactive ingredients known to cause allergies.

Phenolsulfonphthalein use has not been studied in geriatric patients. It may not work, therefore, in the same way it does in younger adults. However, it is not expected to cause any different side effects in older people than it does in younger patients.

The presence of other pre-existing medical conditions could potentially affect the use of a diagnostic test with Phenolsulfonphthalein. Patients are advised to inform their doctor if they currently suffer from any other medical problems, particularly the following:

  • Liver disease
  • Gout
  • Heart disease
  • Severe kidney disease
  • Multiple myeloma

In the case of patients with severe kidney disease of multiple myeloma, Phenolsulfonphthalein diagnostic tests are not recommended. This is because both of these conditions can put the patient at greater risk of becoming unwell during the test, on account of an inability to process the large amounts of liquid that must be administered during the examination.

Storage

Because Phenolsulfonphthalein is generally administered in a clinical setting, a healthcare provider should be responsible for the correct storage of Phenolsulfonphthalein. The liquid should be stored between temperatures of 5C and 30C, and should be shaken prior to administration in order to prevent contents from settling. It should be kept away from sources of moisture and bright light, ideally in a dedicated medical cupboard.

Summary

Phenolsulfonphthalein is a greatly beneficial compound used to diagnose kidney problems, although it can also pose a risk to patients who fail to communicate effectively with their healthcare providers. As a test designed to ascertain whether the kidneys function correctly, it involves large amounts of colored liquid being injected into the body. This liquid is excreted via the urine and then measured. By putting the kidneys under strain when processing large volumes of liquid, the patient may be at risk if they have pre-existing severe renal issues and the correct precautions are not taken. Because this risk exists, it is in the best interests of the patient to be forthcoming about their own medical history, and they are encouraged to impart information regarding any hereditary illnesses or conditions which run in the family.

When used correctly, Phenolsulfonphthalein can help doctors to diagnose kidney problems which otherwise would have gone undetected. In some cases, this means that doctors can catch early-onset diseases or prescribe drugs to alleviate conditions which otherwise would have been undiagnosed. This means that the patient can gain a much better quality of life. To achieve this, patient and doctor must work together in order to determine the most effective dose of Phenolsulfonphthalein.