Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (Injection)

Overview

The poliovirus vaccine is a common immunization agent that is used as a preventative measure against poliomyelitis virus, or polio, an illness that can be life-threatening. This vaccine acts by prompting your body to produce antibodies against the virus, therefore protecting you against the polio virus.

There are two forms of a vaccine against polio, both of which are given via an injection. They are the poliovirus vaccine inactivated, known as the IPV, and the poliovirus vaccine inactivated enhanced potency, which is known as the eIPV. The polio vaccine can also be given by mouth as the poliovirus vaccine live oral, also known as the OPV.

The polio virus is a serious, life-threatening infection that can cause various debilitating conditions, including the paralysis of muscles. These muscles may include those that help and enable you to walk, move and breathe. A polio infection can leave the person suffering unable to walk without the use of leg braces, confined to a wheelchair for life or even unable to breathe unaided, without a machine like an iron lung. There is currently no known cure for polio, and, as such, this vaccine is very important.

Vaccination against the polio virus is highly recommended for infants between the age of six to twelve weeks, as well as all children and adolescents up to eighteen years old.

The poliovirus vaccine is solely administered in a clinical or medical environment, by or under the supervision of a qualified health care professional or doctor. This is to ensure the vaccine is completed appropriately.

Conditions Treated

  • Poliovirus

Type Of Medicine

  • Injectable
  • Suspension

Side Effects

As well as the needed effects of the poliovirus vaccine, this immunization can also cause unwanted or unexpected side effects. An unexpected reaction may be the result of an allergic reaction to the injected solution, the symptoms of which may include:

  • Unusual feelings tiredness or weakness
  • Swelling of the face, eyes, or inside of the nose
  • Reddening of the skin, including and particularly around ears
  • Itching, especially on the hands or feet
  • Hives
  • Difficulty when breathing or swallowing

As well as a potential allergic reaction, the poliovirus vaccine may also result in other side effects. Should you experience any of the listed effects, it's important that you contact a medical professional or doctor for advice as soon as possible:

  • Fever over 102° F (39° C)

Other side effects experienced following vaccination with the poliovirus vaccine may occur, but these effects generally do not require any medical support or attention. These side effects are likely to reduce or go away following treatment, as your body adjusts to the vaccine. If you find the symptoms or side effects your experience worrisome, or if they continue longer than anticipated, you can contact a doctor for support and advice:

  • Tiredness
  • Redness, soreness, a hard lump, feelings of tenderness, or even pain at the site of injection
  • Loss of appetite
  • Itching or skin rash
  • Irritability

As well as the side effects listed, you may experience other symptoms following your immunization with the poliovirus vaccine. Should you experience any other effects, confirm with a medical professional whether they are related to the vaccine. If you choose to, you can report any additional side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Dosage

This vaccine will be given to you or your child by a trained medical professional, doctor or nurse in a clinical and safe environment, either a doctor's surgery or a hospital. This immunization is given as an injection or shot into the muscle or under the skin.

For children, four shots of polio vaccine are given as a course of treatment. These injections are generally given at two months, four months, between six to eighteen months and finally between four and six years of age. Each of these vaccines are given at a minimum of four weeks apart, with the first dose able to be given to an infant of six weeks old.

Due to the nature of the poliovirus vaccine, the immunization should be given on a fixed schedule to ensure it is most effective. Should you or your child miss a shot that is scheduled, it is important to contact your doctor and make a new appointment as soon as possible.

Interaction

Specific types of medication should not be used at the same time, as they may not be compatible or may result in reduced or altered effects. However, in some cases, the benefits of taking two interacting medications may outweigh the risks. This is down to the discretion and medical advice of your doctor.

The poliovirus vaccine is not known to directly interact with any forms of other medication. However, it is vital that your doctor has an up to date and complete record of both your and your child's medical history and prescribed medications, as well as knowledge of the vitamins, herbal supplements and over the counter medications you take.

As well as potential interactions with other medications, certain types of food and alcohol or tobacco may have a direct impact on the effectiveness and functionality of medicines. Certain drugs should be taken into consideration, as should your eating habits, for example, sometimes you should not take a medication around the same time as eating.

Poliovirus vaccine is not known to interact with any forms of food, alcohol or tobacco, but if you are concerned, you can discuss this with a relevant medical professional.

Other pre-existing medical conditions or health problems may have a direct impact on the functionality and use of this immunization. Ensure your doctor is aware if you suffer from any of the following conditions:

  • Weakness
  • Vomiting
  • Virus infection
  • Immune deficiency condition
  • Illness
  • Fever
  • Diarrhea

Warnings

As well as immunization against polio being strongly recommended for all children below the age of 18, vaccination against poliovirus is also important for adults in the following situations, including:

  • People who are traveling to areas or countries where polio is not controlled
  • People who live in locations where the polio infection still occurs
  • Adults who have not been vaccinated against poliovirus, especially in households with children under six weeks old who have not yet begun immunization
  • Employees working in day-care centers and group homes for children
  • Employees working in clinical or medical facilities, including hospitals
  • Laboratory workers who are handling items or samples that can contain polio viruses

When deciding to take the poliovirus vaccine, it's important that you are entirely aware of the risks and benefits of becoming immunized. This decision can be discussed between yourself and your doctor. In particular, the following facts should be considered prior to your decision:

For a period of time after your immunization, there is a risk (around 1 in 2.2 million) that other people living within your household who have not yet been immunized against the polio virus may develop poliomyelitis from being around you. This is also the case for people who have an immune deficiency condition. This should be considered prior to taking this medication.

Inform a medical professional should you have any allergic response to this, or any other, form of medicine. Any allergies, including allergy to food, preservatives, dyes or animals, should be included.

The poliovirus vaccine is listed as FDA category C. This means that studies on animals have shown an adverse effect during pregnancy. This should be considered before immunization and discussed with your doctor if you are pregnant or are planning to become pregnant.

Also, studies have suggested that this vaccine poses a very minimal risk to the infant when used during breastfeeding, which should be considered prior to choosing to take this vaccine.

Storage

This medication is only given within a clinical setting and, due to this, is stored in a secure, appropriate location, away from the general public. The poliovirus vaccine should only be handled be a relevant medical professional at the appropriate time and kept out of reach of children in a locked and secure room.

The poliovirus vaccine is recommended to be refrigerated, never frozen, and should always be stored away from light.

Summary

The poliovirus vaccine is an immunization agent used as a measure to prevent poliomyelitis virus, which is an illness that can be life-threatening. Polio can cause life-changing effects on the body and muscles, including causing sufferers to require a wheelchair or an iron lung to breathe. The poliovirus vaccine makes your body produce its own antibodies against the virus, protecting you against the polio virus.

There are two forms of immunization against polio that are given via a shot. These are the poliovirus vaccine inactivated (IPV) and the poliovirus vaccine inactivated enhanced potency (eIPV). The polio vaccine can alternatively be given as oral medicine, as the poliovirus vaccine live oral (OPV). There is no cure for polio, and as such, this vaccine is very important for those at risk.

Vaccination against the polio virus is recommended and usually given in course to infants between the age of six to twelve weeks, as well as all children and adolescents. Adults who have an increased risk of exposure to viruses, such as poliovirus, should also ensure they have all their vaccines complete.

The poliovirus vaccine is administered in a clinical or medical environment by a doctor or medical professional.