Sevoflurane (Inhalant)

Sevoflurane is mainly used to cause a state of general anesthesia (unconsciousness) before as well as during a surgical procedure.

Overview

Sevoflurane is part of a larger class of medications called general anesthetics. Sevoflurane is prescription only and is administered to induce general anesthesia (safely losing consciousness) before and throughout a surgery. It is breathed in through the mouth or nose, usually in a mixture of other gases, such as pure oxygen.

Although sevoflurane can be used on its own, it is common for different mixtures of anesthetics to be used together. This aids in producing a more effective anesthesia for some patients. It is rapidly absorbed into blood circulation via the lungs while maintaining a low solubility in the patient's blood.

All general anesthetics, including Sevoflurane, are prescribed only by or under the immediate control of a health care provider specifically trained in their use, such as an anesthesiologist. If a patient is to receive a general anesthetic throughout their surgery, the anesthesiologist or the nurse will administer the medication to them and strictly follow their progress.

Conditions Treated

  • General anesthesia (unconsciousness) before and during surgery.

Type of Medication

  • General anesthetic

Side Effects

Occasionally, along with the intended effects, a medication may cause some unwanted side effects. Even though side effects may not occur if they do occur the patient may need urgent medical attention. Once a patient has received and is recovering from a general anesthetic such as sevoflurane, your health care provider will closely monitor the effects. While not very common, some side effects may not occur or be noticed until much later.

Some side effects can occur that will not usually need medical attention. It is normal for these side effects to disappear during the treatment as the body begins to adjust to the medication. Your healthcare provider will be able to inform you of the ways to try and prevent these side effects or at least to help reduce them. Consult with your health care provider if you experience any of the following side effects for a long period of time or if you have any queries regarding them:

More common:

  • Shivering
  • Feeling nauseous
  • Vomiting
  • Coughing
  • Feeling dizzy
  • An increase in saliva production
  • Feeling of drowsiness

Less common:

  • Headaches

There is a possibility that other side effects which are not listed may also occur in patients. If you are aware of or experience any other effects, check with your healthcare provider.

You should call your health care provider for any medical advice pertaining to side effects.

Dosage

This product is available in liquid form that is inhaled by the patient.

The dosage required of this medication will be different for each patient. It is best to follow your health care provider's order on how best to use this. The amount of medication that you will be required to take depends heavily on the strength of the medication as well as a few personal factors. Similarly, the number of prescribed doses you will be required to take, the time scales that are allowed in between the doses and the duration that you are required to take the medication revolve around the specific medical problem that you are prescribed the medication for. Some of these factors are:

  • Patient's age
  • Patient's physical condition.
  • The sort of surgery being performed.
  • Other medications the patient is taking or may take before, during and after surgery

Interactions

Although specific medications should not be taken together at all, in some cases two different medications can be used simultaneously, even if an interaction could occur. In these separate cases, the health care provider may wish to alter the dosage or take different precautions that can be necessary to avoid or treat interactions. When a patient is prescribed this medication, it is vitally important that their health care provider knows if they are actively using any of the medications listed below. The following interactions have been chosen due to their potential consequence and this list is not unquestionably all-inclusive:

  • Bepridil
  • Amifampridine
  • Terfenadine
  • Piperaquine
  • Cisapride
  • Amisulpride
  • Sparfloxacin
  • Thioridazine
  • Ziprasidone
  • Pimozide
  • Saquinavir
  • Mesoridazine
  • Dronedarone

Taking this medication with any other of these medications is mostly not recommended, but in some cases, this can be required and the health care provider will monitor reactions. If both of the medications are prescribed concurrently, the health care provider may alter the dosage and/or how frequently the use of one or both of these medications are taken.

  • Paliperidone
  • Hydromorphone
  • Venlafaxine
  • Imipramine
  • Deslorelin
  • Probucol
  • Risperidone
  • Eribulin
  • Domperidone
  • Cyclobenzaprine
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Panobinostat
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Clomipramine
  • Fluconazole
  • Amiodarone
  • Lapatinib
  • Sotalol
  • Azithromycin
  • Perflutren Lipid Microsphere
  • Iloperidone
  • Lumefantrine
  • Pazopanib
  • Gonadorelin
  • Levofloxacin
  • Alfuzosin
  • Flecainide
  • Arsenic Trioxide
  • Olanzapine
  • Fingolimod
  • Vardenafil
  • Tolterodine
  • Triptorelin
  • Droperidol
  • Ondansetron
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Aripiprazole
  • Protriptyline
  • Donepezil
  • Bedaquiline
  • Propafenone
  • Atazanavir
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Itraconazole
  • Granisetron
  • Famotidine
  • Pitolisant
  • Posaconazole
  • Sertindole
  • Perphenazine
  • Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic
  • Hydroquinidine
  • Asenapine
  • Quinine
  • Dofetilide
  • Mefloquine
  • Erythromycin
  • Sorafenib
  • Nafarelin
  • Methadone
  • Ofloxacin
  • Leuprolide
  • Ebastine
  • Anagrelide
  • Vorinostat
  • Metronidazole
  • Clozapine
  • Pimavanserin
  • Tetrabenazine
  • Mizolastine
  • Octreotide
  • Degarelix
  • Dasatinib
  • Sulpiride
  • Ketoconazole
  • Efavirenz
  • Ibutilide
  • Prochlorperazine
  • S.t John's Wort
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • Dolasetron
  • Dabrafenib
  • Vinflunine
  • Tamoxifen
  • Gatifloxacin
  • Vandetanib
  • Solifenacin
  • Buserelin
  • Trimipramine
  • Apomorphine
  • Doxepin
  • Tizanidine
  • Ranolazine
  • Telaprevir
  • Clarithromycin
  • Quetiapine
  • Telavancin
  • Quinidine
  • Amitriptyline
  • Promethazine
  • Fluoxetine
  • Ritonavir
  • Halofantrine
  • Gemifloxacin
  • Trazodone
  • Galantamine
  • Sodium Phosphate
  • Telithromycin
  • Voriconazole
  • Astemizole
  • Nilotinib
  • Tacrolimus
  • Histrelin
  • Chloroquine
  • Pasireotide
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Disopyramide
  • Desipramine
  • Haloperidol
  • Vemurafenib
  • Mifepristone
  • Escitalopram
  • Felbamate
  • Goserelin
  • Delamanid
  • Foscarnet
  • Crizotinib
  • Zuclopenthixol
  • Paroxetine
  • Sunitinib
  • Toremifene
  • Pentamidine
  • Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic
  • Citalopram
  • Norfloxacin
  • Rilpivirine
  • Ivabradine
  • Procainamide

If a patient uses this medication with any of these other following medications it can cause a heightened risk of specific side effects, however, sometimes using both medications may be the right treatment for the patient. When both medications are prescribed concurrently, your health care provider may alter the dosage or the frequency the patient uses one and/or both of the medications.

  • Pipecuronium
  • Metocurine
  • Rocuronium
  • Alcuronium
  • Doxacurium
  • Atracurium
  • Vecuronium
  • Mivacurium
  • Pancuronium
  • Tubocurarine

Other Interactions

There are particular medications that you should not use around the time of eating particular kinds of food as interactions could occur. Also, using substances such as tobacco and alcohol with these medications can cause other unwanted interactions to happen. It is best to discuss this with your healthcare provider as it pertains to the use of Sevoflurane

Warnings

Sevoflurane can cause respiratory depression, which may be intensified by narcotic premedication or any other agents that can cause respiratory depression. Due to this, respiration should be closely monitored and if it is necessary, should be assisted.

Sevoflurane should only be given by those trained to administer general anesthesia. All equipment needed for maintenance of a patent airway, oxygen enrichment, artificial ventilation and circulatory resuscitation must be instantly available.

Allergies

It is important to tell your healthcare provider if you have ever experienced any allergic reaction or unusual reaction to this medication or any other medications. Also make sure to tell your healthcare provider if you have any other allergies to certain foods, preservatives, dyes or to animal dander.

If the patient has other medical problems may affect the use of this medication, especially:

  • Conditions that could cause muscular weakness, for example, familial periodic paralysis, myasthenic syndrome, myasthenia gravis or muscular dystrophy—any weakness the patient may experience could increase
  • Head injury—Taking Sevoflurane can worsen this condition
  • Kidney disease— Taking Sevoflurane can worsen this condition
  • Liver disease— Taking Sevoflurane when liver disease is present can increase the effects of the medication
  • Malignant hyperthermia, during and/or after taking an anesthetic (any history of this problem)— This could occur again
  • Port-wine stain—Sevoflurane can interfere with any laser treatment used to remove port-wine stains

For any patients leaving the hospital within a 24 hour period after receiving Sevoflurane:

  • Sevoflurane can cause some patients to feel quite drowsy or tired and weak for some time after receiving the medication. It can also cause some issues with a patient's coordination or their ability to think clearly. It is very important that for up to 24 hours, or sometimes even longer if side effects persist after receiving sevoflurane, that a patient does not drive or operate any moving machinery. It should also be noted that undertaking anything else that could be considered dangerous if you were not alert should be avoided.
  • Unless directed otherwise by your health care provider or a dentist, you should refrain from drinking alcohol or taking any other central nervous system depressants (these are medications that could make you feel drowsier) for up to 24 hours after you have been administered sevoflurane. Taking these medications or drinking alcohol could increase the effects of sevoflurane. Examples of central nervous system depressants are antihistamines or all medication for the treatment of hay fever and other allergies, other sedatives, such as tranquilizers or sleep medication, prescription medication for pain or barbiturates, all medication for seizures and any muscle relaxants.

Storage

The recommended shelf life of Sevoflurane is up to 36 months. This medication should be stored at a controlled room temperature of between 59°F and 86°F. Do not keep Sevoflurane refrigerated. Take care to seal the cap on the medication tightly after use.

Summary

Sevoflurane is part of a larger class of medications known as general anesthetics. Sevoflurane is prescription only and is administered to induce general anesthesia (a loss of consciousness) before and throughout a surgery. It is inhaled, usually in a mixture of other gases, such as pure oxygen.

All general anesthetics, including Sevoflurane, are prescribed only by or under the immediate control of a health care provider specifically trained in their use, such as an anesthesiologist. If a patient is to receive a general anesthetic during their surgery, the anesthesiologist or the nurse will administer the medication to them and strictly follow their progress.

Sevoflurane can cause respiratory depression, which may be intensified by narcotic premedication or any other agents that can cause respiratory depression. Due to this, respiration should be closely monitored and if it is necessary, should be assisted.

Sevoflurane should only be given by those trained to administer general anesthesia. All equipment needed for maintenance of a patent airway, oxygen enrichment, artificial ventilation and circulatory resuscitation must be instantly available.

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medication. Make sure you tell your healthcare provider if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Diseases that can cause muscle weakness, such as familial periodic paralysis, muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, or myasthenic syndrome—The weakness experienced by the patient may increase
  • Head injury—Taking Sevoflurane can worsen this condition
  • Kidney disease— Taking Sevoflurane can worsen this condition
  • Liver disease— Taking Sevoflurane when liver disease is present can increase the effects of the medication
  • Malignant hyperthermia, during and/or after receiving an anesthetic (any history or family history of this problem)— This side effect could occur again
  • Port-wine stain—Sevoflurane can interfere with any laser treatment used to remove port-wine stains
Resources
Last Reviewed:
January 28, 2018
Last Updated:
January 27, 2018
Content Source: