Iodine is an essential mineral that helps to regulate the thyroid gland in humans. This trace element promotes normal growth and development throughout all stages of life.
Some individuals, however, suffer from an iodine deficiency. In these cases, Sodium Iodide may be prescribed when patients are unable to absorb sufficient amounts of Iodide through diet alone. Prescriptions are currently available in oral capsule or IV forms.
In context, Iodide deficiency is not common in the United States. This is because many of the foods we eat contain iodine - in particular, table salt.
Even though this may be true in the Western Hemisphere, some areas do not have easy access to iodine-rich foods.
These terms will be used interchangeably throughout the guide as both iodide and iodine represent the same element - in different states.
Iodine deficiency can lead to many serious health issues, including:
According to the Office of Dietary Supplements, a division of the National Institutes of Health, iodine predominantly affects thyroid hormones.
In addition, the Office of Dietary Supplements cites that an iodine deficiency can have irreversible and irreparable adverse health effects in developing fetuses.
As a result, medical specialists often address iodide deficiencies with prescription sodium iodide. This is available under the trade name Iodopen, which can be administered:
Intravenous sodium iodide is exclusively provided by trained medical workers.
Along with the above treatments, healthcare providers may also outline a plan to help patients identify and source more of this essential mineral.
For example, iodide is typically found in many types of seafood and vegetables cultivated in iodine-rich soils.
A non-prescription supplement may be recommended.
When prescribing sodium iodide, healthcare professionals generally refer to the recommended dietary allowances and daily values of nutrients published by the corresponding country of duty.
In the United States, for example, roughly 40-200 mcgs are recommended, depending on the patient's age. Other factors that affect the recommended dietary allowance for Iodide are sex and pregnancy.
The most common triggers for an iodide/iodine deficiency include:
In order to diagnose an iodide deficiency, urinary iodine measurements are taken.
When medical researchers confirmed the essential value of sodium iodide more than a century ago and the potential repercussions of iodide deficiencies, extensive measures were taken to formulate programs that would improve public health and safety.
Today, these programs are barely noticeable, though right under our nose.
The table salt we use at home, for example, is most likely to contain iodide, since salt manufacturers voluntary add this trace mineral. It's been this way since the 1920s.
While iodide deficiency can have real serious health effects, the reverse is also true.
Sodium iodide treatments should be used with caution. It is important for patients to not overdo the treatment as doing so could lead to this serious but rare side effect.
If you received an IV treatment with sodium iodide, ask your doctor what foods are safe to eat and for how long to avoid acute iodide poisoning. To treat, doctors generally up the intake of fluids to flush the system.
The below dosages are estimates of what doctors prescribe:
Sodium iodide injections are diluted into total parenteral nutrition treatments and are administered exclusively by medical workers.
The U.S. brand, Idopen, is supplied in 10 ML vials. Each ML contains 100 mcgs of iodide. The average dose of Sodium Iodide Injections are:
Sodium iodide doses are largely dependent on the recommended dietary allowances charted by the country in which is prescribed. Currently, there are three main guidelines that healthcare providers typically refer to, including the U.S., Canadian, or European versions. For the purposes of this article, the U.S. recommended dietary allowances and daily values are used.
The dosage amounts listed on this chart consider:
Pregnant women, for example, get a modest boost in sodium iodide intake in order to support the normal health and development of both the mother and fetus.
Males, too, require more sodium iodide than females, in most cases. This isn't exclusive to sodium iodide either, as most minerals and nutrients will be less or more for specific groups.
When doses of iodide are administered, orally or intravenously, it is quickly absorbed in the body. Continuous treatment may be required for patients who lack access to foods rich in iodine.
Sodium Iodide doses should never be doubled as high doses could cause negative side effects, as mentioned earlier in this guide. If you miss a dose, take it when you remember and note the time for continuing the next day.
No negative interactions have been established for prescription sodium iodide.
Some over the counter medicines contain sodium iodide. As a result, be sure to inform your healthcare provider of any vitamins, supplements, or OTC drugs being taken. If you have been diagnosed with an iodide deficiency, it is important to not overdo treatment as high doses of this mineral could cause poisoning to occur.
Concentrated amounts of sodium iodide could have adverse side effects. Before, during, and after the course of a sodium iodide IV treatments, be sure to heed the warnings outlined by your medical provider.
In general, these warnings include:
Tell your doctor if you have a history of allergic reactions to iodine.
Infants who are given excessive amounts of sodium iodide could face adverse reactions, such as thyroid dysfunction and irritating skin rashes. As a result, the maximum recommended daily allowance of 70 mcg should not be exceeded during treatment.
Taking prescription sodium iodide could exacerbate certain underlying medical conditions. These include:
Before heading to the doctor, make a list of all medications being taken at this time, including prescription and over the counter drugs. Also, note any underlying medical conditions or allergies you have. Your doctor will factor in these variables before devising a treatment plan for iodide deficiency.
Sodium iodide injections are processed with aluminum, which could be toxic to premature babies and individuals diagnosed with a renal impairment.
Oral doses of sodium iodide should be stored at room temperature and out of the reach of children and adults. Avoid placing the bottle in areas with heat, moisture, or direct sunlight. These could affect the quality of the medicine.
Did you know that too little or too much of sodium iodide is never a good thing?
An iodide deficiency makes our system go haywire and too much of this mineral could cause poisoning.
It is therefore important to strike just the right balance.
A good way to accomplish this is to consult a dietary nutritionist or a healthcare provider. Your specialist will outline foods that are rich in iodide and any additional measures that need be taken to treat iodine deficiency.
In addition to prescription or over-the-counter supplements containing iodine, healthcare specialists may opt for sodium iodide injections or Idopen. In such cases, iodine is administered in safe concentrations through an IV. These concentrations are typically diluted into a total parenteral nutrition treatment.
Iodine deficiency is very rare in the United States. Many of the food staples found in American households contain iodine, including table salt, bread, milk, eggs, and cheese. In other regions where soils used to grow crops lack iodine, iodine deficiencies are prevalent.
This deficiency can have real negative effects on patients' health, but the good news is that it can be treated with prescription sodium iodide.