Diabetes Insipidus (DI)

What is Diabetes Insipidus?

Those who have diabetes insipidus have kidneys that cannot prevent the excretion of water. It is an uncommon condition. The kidneys filter the blood throughout the day and water is mostly reabsorbed; a small amount of concentrated urine is excreted.

When someone has diabetes insipidus, too much diluted urine is excreted. This is caused by a lack of the antidiuretic hormone. It can also be caused by a failure to respond to the antidiuretic hormone.

Kinds of diabetes insipidus (DI):

  • Central DI
  • Nephrogenic DI
  • Hereditary nephrogenic DI
  • Lithium-induced nephrogenic DI

What are the Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus?

Symptoms that may suggest that you have diabetes insipidus include an excessive thirst and a craving for ice water. This is followed by excessive urination frequency and volume.

Diabetes Insipidus Causes

Diabetes insipidus may have a direct cause, a suspected cause or it may come with no cause that can be determined. In about half of patients, the cause of the condition is never determined. Sometimes, the condition develops because of an injury to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus or damage that it has developed. The damage could be from head trauma, surgery, an infection, inflammation or a tumor. In some patients, there is a genetic defect that causes this condition. People develop diabetes insipidus when their bodies are unable to regulate the fluids that come into the body. The kidneys are supposed to remove any extra fluid from the blood, and this excess fluid then goes to the bladder until it is excreted as urine. There is less urine made when the fluid is excreted elsewhere, as when you sweat.

When a patient has diabetes insipidus, a defect or damage to specific areas of the body will suppress the body’s systems that regulate fluid intake and removal. This can result in too much fluid being taken in and too much fluid going out in the form of urine. Pregnancy can often bring on this condition which then goes away by itself after the pregnancy is over. This type is caused by the woman’s placenta making a specific enzyme that attacks and destroys the hormone vasopressin. This hormone is what controls the amount of water that the woman retains, and the destruction of this hormone creates fluid-regulation problems.

How is Diabetes Insipidus Treated?

If you have central diabetes insipidus, vasopressin may be injected or orally swallowed in tablets or nasal spray can be used. If you have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the result of medicines, medicine may be discontinued or decreased. Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus require drinking enough fluid to match the output of urine. Diuretics and anti-inflammatory medicines may also be prescribed.

Diabetes Insipidus Prevention

When you have been injured, seek treatment promptly in order to reduce the risk of developing diabetes insipidus. In addition, quickly get treatment for tumors and infections to stay healthier and lower your odds. Being treated quickly for excessive thirst and urinating far too frequently can prevent this condition from getting worse.