Limited Scleroderma, or CREST syndrome, is a disease where scar tissue forms on finite portions of skin—mainly the hands and the face. This scar tissue is caused by an overproduction of collagen, which can build up and impair dexterity and different bodily systems. While diffuse scleroderm can affect internal organs, limited scleroderma is much less severe in its symptoms.
The cause of limited scleroderma is unknown; however, hereditary does play a role. The disease is seen more often in females than males, and it is seen more often in certain races, like those of African descent. Lastly, if exposed to certain toxins, some people with inadequate immune systems can acquire CREST syndrome.
Limited scleroderma is also known as CREST syndrome because the “CREST” acronym stands for the five main signs of the disease.
Those with the condition usually have calcium deposits on the skin, Raynald’s syndrome—which can restrict blood flow in the extremities—a weak or impaired esophagus, sclerodactyly—or epidermis tautness or fibrosis on toes and fingers, and dilated blood vessels that cause redness. Some complications of the disease include severe inflammation, blood vessel problems, heart problems, and lung problems.
A plan might include one or more of the following treatments:
The direction of medical care is determined by which symptoms are most bothersome for a patient. For instance, if limited scleroderma is causing symptoms related to Raynaud’s syndrome, then blood-pressure lowering drugs may be taken to improve the circulation of blood in toes and fingers.
If a person has too much scar tissue, topical antibiotics, bandages, and drugs that suppress the inflammation can be used. If a person has enlarged capillaries, then laser surgery is recommended to eliminate those cosmetic blemishes on the skin. Because limited scleroderma can cause scar tissue on the hands, it is also important for patients to go to occupational therapy to keep those muscles strong, maintain normal range-of-motion, and break up thickened tissue. Lifestyle changes, proper skin care, and a well-balanced diet can also improve a patient’s symptoms.