Individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder lack a certain enzyme in their body that is necessary for breaking down sulfatides or fats. Without this enzyme, these fatty substances collect in the cells of the body, including the central nervous system.
This process has a negative effect on the nerves that control the brain and spinal cord. Sensory cells in the peripheral nervous system are also damaged and this often leads to seizures, blindness and paralysis. Individuals who have Metachromatic leukodystrophy inherit it from their parents. Both parents must have the gene for a child to acquire this disorder.
When symptoms of this disorder start to surface, they are often hardly noticeable because they appear slowly.
Memory problems, eyesight issues and body numbness.
Later symptoms that cause a disruption in the normal function of the muscles include a decline in muscle tone, unnatural movements of the muscles and the inability to control the muscles. Some individuals have problems swallowing, eating and speaking. Walking can become complicated and it is not unusual for individuals to lose their balance and repeatedly fall. Behavioral issues and an ill temper are also common symptoms of metachromatic leukodystrophy.
Since there is no cure for metachromatic leukodystrophy, treatment is centered on controlling the symptoms.
Types of medications that are normally prescribed include pain relievers and drugs that will aid in controlling the muscles. Therapy sessions often help individuals improve the motions of their muscles and speech therapy will help with speaking problems. Individuals who have eating and swallowing issues will benefit with assistance from a certified nutritionist.
Some people elect to have a bone marrow transplant to keep the disease from advancing at a rapid rate. This type of treatment is best suited for individuals who are in the early stages of the disease as it will not improve the damage that currently exists.