Muteness is also called mutism. Both words mean the same thing – the inability to speak. The old word for muteness was dumb but that word has fallen out of favor today. However, many older medical books, doctors and even contemporary songs mention a person being unable to talk as “dumb.”
There are many physical and psychological causes for muteness. Anyone can become mute, or a person who cannot speak. Children seem particularly vulnerable to mutism for unknown reasons. Some people who are mute are still able to make sounds but are not able to form coherent words and sentences.
Although there are many types of mutism, they all have the one same symptom – the patient cannot talk. The patient may not be able to talk under any circumstance or the patient may be able to talk only when relaxed and happy.
There can be other symptoms depending on the individual and the cause of his or her mutism. Children suffering from selective mutism, for example, may become anxious and incontinent when they try to speak in public.
Muteness is often treatable and curable depending on the cause of the individual patience’s silence. Patients who are mute for psychological reasons need therapy and even different forms of therapy in order to help encourage them to talk once more or to talk in public places.
Muteness caused by physical problems is much more complex. A person born deaf has great difficulty learning to talk because he or she cannot hear if any mistakes are made. People born deaf can still learn to talk with lots of practice and the help of a speech therapist. Many mutes learn alternative forms of communication such as American Sign Language.
Patients mute because of throat cancer or injuries that need their larynx or voice box removed can use an artificial voice box machine to speak again, albeit in a robotic monotone. There have been successful larynx transplants in the United States, but this is still a relatively new kind of surgery and may be impractical for many patients right now.