Myoclonus is not a disease but a symptom of an infection or a condition such as a stroke, liver or kidney failure, poisoning, brain tumor, and other disorders. It is caused by prolonged deprivation of oxygen to the brain (hypoxia). It is usually one of several disorders caused by the underlying condition.
Groups of muscles that are affected contract briefly as if an electric shock ran through the body. These contractions can also have psychological causes and be physiological (for example when falling asleep or in the case of hiccups).
Myoclonus can be focal (located in one area), segmental (affecting contiguous areas), multifocal (independently present in different areas), generalized and can be also cause by some medications or brain disorders.
Myoclonus becomes evident with the appearance of jerks or twitches. They can occur in patterns or sequences or there may be no pattern to them at all. They can be occasional or frequent. The twitching is uncontrollable. It may begin in one area of the body and then appear in other areas, too. At its most severe, it can impact the ability to walk, talk, or even eat.
The focus of treatment for myoclonus usually is on treating the main condition; however, treating the symptom of myoclonus may be part of that. Clonazepam is one of the most common drugs used to treat myoclonus. A small dosage is usually prescribed by a doctor and then increased as necessary.
Other drugs that are used to treat myoclonus include primiodone, levetiracetam, phenytoin, and barbiturates. These are drugs typically used to treat epilepsy as they slow down the central nervous system.
Multiple drugs are sometimes used in treating myoclonus because some drugs do not work on their own but when used with other drugs are effective.