Placenta Accreta is a condition that occurs during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus. However, when a woman has placenta accreta, the placenta attaches too strongly or deeply to the uterine wall. The severity of placenta accreta depends on how deeply the placenta gets embedded into the uterine wall.
Sometimes, in the most severe cases of this condition the placenta grows beyond or past the uterine wall. If this happens, it can also be referred to as placenta percreta and if the placenta goes into or through the uterine muscle, it is called placenta increta. When placenta accreta is not diagnosed before childbirth, uncontrollable and continued bleeding can occur after the child is born. This can be life-threatening.
The exact causes of placenta accreta are not known. However, if a woman has an abnormality with their uterine wall or lining already, they may be more prone to develop placenta accreta. Additionally, a previous cesarean delivery or a uterine surgery can result in scar tissue that can make a woman more prone to placenta accreta during future pregnancies. Women over the age of 35 are also more prone to placenta accreta than other women.
During a pregnancy, there are generally no symptoms of placenta accreta. However, there is a chance that this condition can be detected during a routine ultrasound. If it is detected during an ultrasound, doctors can be better prepared to protect the health of the child and mother during childbirth.
Sometimes, a woman with a placenta accreta may experience vaginal bleeding during her third trimester of pregnancy. Bleeding during the third trimester should always be taken very serious and warrant a visit to the emergency room or the ob/gyn.
When a woman is diagnosed with placenta accreta before giving birth, a plan for a cesarean delivery can be developed. The baby will be delivered surgically to keep it safe. This situation also helps doctors to control the bleeding that occurs as a result of placenta accreta.
Oftentimes, a placenta accreta requires a hysterectomy to be successfully resolved. If a woman wishes to get pregnant again in the future, doctors can try to leave the placenta in the uterus. However, there are numerous risks to this including continued bleeding and serious infection.