A Pneumothoraxis the medical term for a collapsed lung. This occurs when air enters what is known as the pleural space. The pleural space is an area between the cells that line the chest wall and the lungs. If there is a hole in either the wall of the chest or the lung itself, the pleural space can get inundated with air. When this happens, the carefully balanced pressure inside of the body is disrupted which means that the lung cannot stay inflated as it should, which in turn causes the collapse of the lung.
The most common cause of a pneumothorax is an injury to the chest. This can be a puncture would or even what is known as blunt force trauma which can occur in a car accident or even a fall. Various lung diseases could also cause a pneumothorax. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), pneumonia, lung cancer, bronchitis, and even asthma can contribute to the development of a pneumothorax.
This condition can vary in severity and is either termed an open pneumothorax (an issue with the chest wall) or a tension pneumothorax (an issue with the wall of the lung). While most collapsed lungs have an easily detectable cause, they can also occur spontaneously.
Shortness of breath is perhaps the most common sign of a pneumothorax. A person may also feel tightness in their chest and will likely feel an aching pain as well. Other signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax include cold sweats, cyanosis (the skin turning blue), fatigue, and tachycardia (an extremely fast heart rate).
Treatment for a pneumothorax varies from conservative to invasive depending on the cause and severity of the condition. If a pneumothorax is small and is only causing minor symptoms (if any), bed rest and monitoring may be the only necessary treatment.
For a larger pneumothorax, more aggressive treatments may be necessary. A doctor may be able to perform a needle aspiration or a chest tube to get the air out of the pleural space. This can help the lung to re-inflate and may be the only necessary treatment. However, sometimes surgery is needed to correct the issue such as to close the pleural space or to remove lesions, tumors, or other growths that are contributing to the issue.