Retinoblastoma is a form of eye cancer. This particular type of eye cancer begins in the retina, which is the part of the eye that takes light that enters the eye and transmits it to the optic nerve to create an image in the brain. Retinoblastoma is a rare type of cancer. It generally affects children but in some very rare cases, it can occur in adulthood as well.
Retinoblasts are the cells that form the retina that develop during early pregnancy. It is possible for retinoblasts to begin growing out of control rather than develop into more mature retinal cells, which is what occurs when a child suffers from retinoblastoma. As the retinal cells continue to grow and multiply, a tumor develops in the retina.
Sometimes, retinoblastoma can spread beyond the retina. This can involve the tumor and cancer cells invading other areas of the eye. Retinoblastoma can also metastasize and get into the spine and/or the brain. The exact causes of retinoblastoma and the genetic mutations that cause it are usually unknown. However, if one of the child’s parents also had retinoblastoma, the genetic abnormality could be inherited.
Retinoblastoma can cause a variety of symptoms. Because this cancer is often found in small children, parents may notice that one or both of the child’s eyes appear red or swollen. The eyes may also be irritated or painful. With retinoblastoma, a white or yellowish mass may be visible when looking at the eye and a white glow may be evident with a camera flash. If a child’s eyes seem to go off in different directions or are crossed, they may have a retinoblastoma tumor.
There are numerous treatment options for retinoblastoma depending on whether it affects one or both eyes, the stage of the cancer, and whether or not it has spread beyond the retina. Chemotherapy and radiation are both treatment options for retinoblastoma. Laser therapy and cryotherapy are also known as focal therapies and can be used to target the retinal tumor and shrink the tumor or stop tumor growth. The surgical removal of the affected eye is also an option in some cases and may prevent the need for any other retinoblastoma treatments.