A subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when blood travels into the subarachnoid space inside the brain. This space contains cerebrospinal fluid and it shields the brain from becoming injured when there is trauma to the head. When blood flows into this space, it can cause individuals to go into a coma or become paralyzed.
This condition can also be fatal, especially if the individual does not have prompt medical care. Causes of a subarachnoid hemorrhage include head injuries, blood thinning medications and a cerebral aneurysm. Risk factors include high blood pressure, polycystic kidney disease and disorders of connective tissues in the body. Individuals who have family members who have previously suffered aneurysms are also at a higher risk.
Individuals who have experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage will immediately have an immense headache that is especially painful in the back portion of their head. The pain often radiates down to the shoulder and neck region.
Parts of the body may feel numb and seizures may occur. Vision problems are common and individuals may have blind spots, double vision, sensitivity to bright lights and short-term loss of vision in one of their eyes. Other people may notice that the individual has contrasting pupil sizes and a droopy eyelid. Some individuals become confused and lose awareness of their surroundings.
Immediate treatment of a subarachnoid hemorrhage is essential to prevent potential brain damage or death. Surgeons will open the individual’s skull and seal the aneurysm to prevent the occurrence of bleeding. If the individual is in a coma, life support measures are initiated.
Various medications may be prescribed to reduce headache pain, halt the onset of seizures, manage safe blood pressure levels and avert spasms in the arteries. During the recovery period, individuals must get proper rest. To prevent unnecessary compression on the brain, individuals will be instructed to avoid stooping over and engaging in strenuous activities.